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  • ID:4-6472547 [精]中考英语专题复习之音标 课件

    初中英语/中考专区/中考其它

    (共42张PPT) 音标 中考英语复习专题 英语由单词和句子组成,单词离不开发音。音标是英语中的最小单位,帮助正确发音。 英语作为一门语言,最基本的作用是沟通。正确掌握好音标,有助于英语说的能力锻炼。学好音标有助于提高学生的英语听力。只有正确地掌握好了音标的学习,才能准确读出单词,加上不断的练习,自然就能听懂英语了。 本节课程的意义及作用 课程框架 一. 英语音标 1. 定义 2. 数量 3. 分类 4. 音节 二. 字母的分类 1. 元音字母 2. 半元音字母 3. 辅音字母 4. 字母组合的发音规则 发音器官 一. 英语音标 1. 定义 音标是英语中最小单位。为了能准确标识发音,引入了语音符号, 这些语音符号称作音标(Phonetic symbol)。 类似于汉语拼音的作用。 2. 数量 英语音标共48个 3. 分类 英语音标共分为:元音音素和辅音音素 元音音素共20个 辅音音素共28个 { 元音 单元音 双元音 前元音 中元音 后元音 { /i:/, /I/, /e/, /?/ /?:/, /?/, /?/ /u:/, /?/, /?:/, /?/, /ɑ:/ /eI/, /aI/, /?I/, /I?/, /e?/, /??/ ,/a?/, /??/, 辅音 爆破音 磨檫音 鼻 音 半元音 舌边音 / p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/ /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /θ/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /h/, /r/ , /m/, /n/, /?/ /l/ /w/, /j/ /tr/, /dr/ ,/ts/, /dz/, /t?/, /? /, 破擦音 国际音标 (1) 元音 (20个) 1. 元音发音的特点 发元音时气流从肺中压出,经过气管进入口腔,在口腔中不受阻碍, 舌位、唇形、开口度保持不变。 并且,所有的元音发音时,声带震动。 2. 元音分类 元音共20个。分为单元音和双元音。 单元音可按舌面隆起的位置分为前元音,后元音和中元音三类。 发前元音时,舌的最高点在口腔的前部; 发后元音时,舌的最高点在口腔的后部; 发中元音时,舌的最高点在口腔的中部。 单元音(12个): 前元音 /i:/,/I/, /e/, /?/ 中元音 /?:/, /?/, /?/ 后元音 /u:/, /?/, /?:/, /?/, /a:/ 双元音(8个): /eI/, /aI/, /?I/, /I?/, /e?/, /??/ ,/a?/, /??/ 单元音(12 个) ① 前元音(4个) /i:/ 舌抵下齿,双唇扁平作微笑状。此音是长元音,一定注意把音发足。 例: eat; tea; meat;lead; “衣” /?/ 舌抵下齿,双唇扁平分开,牙床近于全舌,发音短促。 例:sit; hit; fish; win; /?/ 双唇扁平,舌前微升,舌尖抵住下龈,牙床开,软腭升起,唇自然开放。 例:bed; egg; net(网); ten; 梅花 /?/ 或大口/?/ 拉歌的 “哎~” /e/ 舌近硬腭,舌尖顶下齿,牙床半开半合,作微笑状。 例:apple; cat; cap; bag; 小口 “挨” ② 中元音(3个) /з:/ 舌上抬,唇成自然状态,口半开半闭。 例: bird; fur; word; work; /?/ 舌上抬,唇成自然状态,口半开半闭。 例:along; banana; arrive; /?/ 双唇平放,牙床半开,舌尖抵住下龈,舌后微微升起。 例:run; cup; sun; bus; ③ 后元音(5个) /a:/ 双唇张而不圆,牙床大开,舌后微升,舌尖向后升缩微离下齿。 例:bar; mark; shark; half; /?:/ 双唇界于开闭、圆唇之间,牙床半开渐至全开,舌尖卷上再过渡为卷后。 例:call; talk; lawyer; ball; “袄” /?/ 双唇稍微向外突出圆形,舌后升起,舌尖不触下齿。 例:dog; box; stop; hot; /u:/ 双唇成圆形,牙床近于半合,舌尖不触下齿,自然而不用力。 例:tooth; cool; loose; school; /?/ 双唇成圆形,牙床近于半合,舌尖不触下齿,自然而不用力。 例:book; good; cook; look; 单元音(monophthong)共12个,还可以分为长元音和短元音。 长元音 /a:/ /?:/ /?:/ /i:/ /u:/ 短元音 /?/ /?/ /?/ /?/ /?/ /?/ /e/ /?/ 阶段小结 单元音练习题 一. 找出画线部分读音不同的单词 ( ) 1. A. tea B. meat C. weather D. beach ( ) 2. A. back B. fast C. have D. map ( ) 3. A. warm B. garden C. market D. party ( ) 4. A. school B. tooth C. choose D. good ( ) 5. A. book B. too C. look D. cook ( ) 6. A. June B. ruler C. moon D. menu ( ) 7. A. push B. fun C. sun D. cut ( ) 8. A. tiger B. her C. officer D. over ( ) 9. A. like B. lion C. pizza D. Friday ( ) 10. A. teacher B. seat C. weather D. Please C B A D B D A B C C 3. 连线。 meat [?] thirsty [?] driver [?:] animal [i:] 4. 根据音标试着写出单词。(含辅音字母) /fu:d/ /gud/ /tekst/ /big/ /ha:f/ /buk/ /giv/ /sik/ food good text big half book give sick 双元音(8个) 双元音(diphthongs),在语音学中指联合的两个元音,它们作为一个整体出现。之间有平滑的过渡,也就是说,双元音中的发音牵涉到两种不同的舌位,并且从其中一种舌位滑动到另一舌位。 在音标中,单元音(monophthongs)用一个字母表示,如[?]。 双元音用两个字母表示,如[a?]. /a?/ 口形由开到合,牙齿由全开过度到全闭。 例:write;my;why;cry; /e?/ 由[e]和[i]两个单音组成, /e/重读,/ i/轻读,口形由半开到合,与字母 A发音相同。 例:wait;late;waste;hate; /a?/ /a/重读,/u/轻读,口形由大到小。 例:mouse;south;cloud;cow(奶牛); /??/ 前元音重读,后元音轻读,双唇始终半开。 例:beer;tear;clear;near; /e?/ 前重后轻,舌端抵下齿,双唇半开。 例:bear;wear;air;there; /??/ 前重后轻,嘴唇由收圆到半开,口形由合到开,双唇由圆到扁平。 例:poor;tour;cure; /??/ 口形由半开到小,与字母 O的发音相同。前面的音清楚而较长,后面的 音圆唇,发音模糊而较短。 例:goat;pose/p??z/ (姿势);know; /??/ 前元音重读,后元音轻读,双唇从圆到扁,口形从开到合;牙齿从全开 到逐渐闭合,注意连贯性。 例:noise;choice;oil;point; 双元音共8个 /a?/ /e?/ /a?/ /??/ /e?/ /??/ /??/ /??/ 阶段小结 双元音练习题 一、选出划线字母正确读音,用勾号表示 1、toy A./ ?? / B. / e? / C. / a? / 2、here A./ ? / B. / ?? / C. / ?? / 3、stair A. / e? / B./ ? / C. / e? / 4、our A. / ? / B. / ?? / C. / a? / 5、ride A. / ? / B. / a? / C. /α: / 6、horse A. /α? / B. / ai / C. / ?: / 7、cold A. / ? / B. / ?? / C. / ? / √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 二、写出下列单词中元音字母或元音字母组的含相同元音音标 例 1.train snake / e? / 2.play game cake _____________ 3.fly bike ride _________ 4. small tall horse __________ 5.rabbit have bag __________ 6.boy toy _____________ 7.cow town how ________ 8.home go no _____________ 9.here ear near __________ 10. pear stair ___________ 三、找出划线部分发音不同的选项,并写出音标 1、A. cold B. old C. home D. sorry ( ) 2、A. play B. game C. taxi ( ) 3、A. town B. toy C. our ( ) 4、A. this B. ride C. white ( ) 5、A. small B. apple C. walk ( ) 6、A. here B. girl C. skirt ( ) 9、A. have B. banana C. taxi ( ) 10、A. near B. pear C. stair ( ) /a?/ /e?/ /?/ /??/ /??/ /a?/ /??/ /??/ /e?/ D /?/ C /?/ B /??/ A /?/ B /?/ A /??/ B /?/ A /??/ 辅音(28个) 爆破音 辅音:发音时气流受到发音器官的各种 清辅音:/ p/, /t/, /k/, 阻碍,声带不一定振动。 浊辅音:/b/, /d/, /g/ 清辅音:发音时声带不振动, 摩擦音 与浊辅音相对。 清辅音:/f/, /s/, /θ/, /?/, /h/ 浊辅音:/v/, /z/, /?/, /?/, /r/ 破擦音 清辅音:/tr/, /ts/, /t?/ 浊辅音:/dr/, /dz/, /? / 鼻音(浊辅音) /m/, /n/, /?/ 边辅音(浊辅音) /l/ 半元音 /w/, /j/ 辅音两种分类: 按照声带振动分为清辅音和浊辅音 按照发音方式分为左边六类 /p/ 双唇紧闭,然后快速张开,让气流冲出口腔,发出爆破音,但声带不振动。 eg: pea(豌豆), deep(深的), tip(尖端) /b/ 双唇紧闭,然后快速张开,让气流冲出口腔,发出爆破音,但声带需振动。 eg: bee(蜜蜂), beat(敲打), bit(少量) /?t/ 舌尖抵上齿龈, 憋住气,然后弹开舌尖,让气流从口腔中喷出,但声带不振动。 eg: eat(吃),beat(敲打), bit(少量),tip(顶端) /d/ 舌尖抵上齿龈,憋住气,然后弹开舌尖,让气流从口腔中喷出,但声带需振动。 eg: deep(深的), deal(处理),do(做) /?k/ 舌后部抵住软腭,憋住气,然后突然离开,将气流送出,像咳嗽,但声带不振动。 eg: key(钥匙),kid(小孩),kind(亲切的) /g/ 舌后部抵住软腭,憋住气,然后突然离开,将气流送出,像咳嗽,但声带需振动。 eg: big(大的),give(给),egg(鸡蛋),get(到达) ① 爆破音 6 个 ② 摩擦音 10 个 /f/ 上齿轻轻接触下唇,后轻轻吹气,使气流从唇齿间通过,形成摩擦,但声带不振动。 eg: fact(事实),feet(脚),fat(肥的) /v/上齿轻轻接触下唇,后轻轻吹气,使气流从唇齿间通过,形成摩擦,但声带需振动。 eg: give(给),have(有),very(非常) /s/ 双唇微微张开,舌端靠近齿龈,舌头自然放松,气流从齿间送出,但声带不振动。 eg: best(最好的),zest(热情),bus(巴士) /z/ 双唇微微张开,舌端靠近齿龈,舌头自然放松,气流从齿间送出,但声带需振动。 eg: zest(热情), zero(零),zoo(动物园) /θ/ 舌尖微微伸出,上下齿轻轻咬住舌尖送气,但声带不振动。 eg: bath(洗澡),thought(思考),thank(谢谢) /?/ 舌尖微微伸出,上下齿轻轻咬住舌尖送气,但声带需振动。 eg: than(比较),that(那个),those(那些) 咬唇音 咬唇音 咬舌音 咬舌音 摩擦音 /?/ 双唇收圆,并稍微突出,舌头稍微上卷,舌尖接近上齿龈送气,声带不振动。 eg: flash(闪现),show(展示),shine(发光) /?/ 双唇收圆并稍微突出,舌头稍微上卷,舌尖接近上齿龈,但声带需振动。 eg: pleasure(愉快),leisure(安逸) /h/ 嘴唇自然张开,自然呵气,声带不振动。 eg: have(有),hill(小山),happen(发生) /r/ 舌尖向上卷起,舌头不要接触任何部位,双唇稍微突出,声带振动。 eg: bread(面包),red(红色的),rush(冲,奔) are[a:(r)] 注意:位置前后发音不同,后面为卷舌音。 前:“若” 后:卷舌音,儿化音 类似汉语的“日” 类似汉语“诗” 类似汉语的“喝” ③ 破擦音 6 个 /t?/ 双唇略微张开突出,舌尖抵住上齿龈,用力吐气,声带不振动。 eg: charm(魅力),change(改变),cheer(喝彩) /d?/ 双唇略微张开突出,舌尖抵住上齿龈,用力吐气,但声带需振动。 eg: change(改变),job(工作),joke(玩笑) /tr/ 双唇收圆向前突出,舌尖上翘抵住上齿龈,采取发/r/的姿势 ,声带不振动。 eg: train(火车),try(尝试),truck(货车) /dr/ 双唇收圆向前突出,舌尖上翘抵住上齿龈,采取发/r/的姿势 ,声带需振动。 eg: dry(干燥),dream(梦想),drag(拉) /ts/ 舌尖先抵住上齿,堵住气流,使气流从舌尖和齿龈间送出,声带不振动。 eg: seats(座位),roots(根),fruits(水果) /dz/ 舌尖先抵住上齿龈,堵住气流,使气流从舌尖和齿龈间送出,但声带需振动。 eg: reads(阅读),goods(商品),needs(需要) 类似“吃” 类似“知” 类似“戳”音 类似“桌”音 类似“呲压咧嘴”的“呲” 类似“资”音 ④ 鼻音 3 个浊辅音 /m/ 双唇紧闭,舌头放平,气流从鼻腔送出,声带振动。 eg: money(钱),room(房间),morning(早上) /n/ 双唇微开,舌尖抵上齿龈,气流从鼻孔里出来,声带振动。 eg: need(需要),thin(瘦的),morning(早上) /?/ 双唇张开,舌尖抵下齿龈,舌后部自然往上顶住,气流从鼻腔送出,声带振动。 eg: young(年轻的),song(歌曲),tongue(舌头) 前:“摸” 后:“姆” 前:“呢” 后:“嗯” 类似“昂” ⑤ 边音 1 个浊辅音 /??/ 1. 舌尖抵住上齿龈,舌尖轻微用力弯曲,气流从舌的旁边送出,声带 振动。 eg:love(爱),little(小的),letter(字母) 2. 当其它音节+/l/或/l/+辅音时舌头不需要下落,称它为含糊音。 eg:well(好地),fill(填充),feel(感觉) 类似汉语“了”音 舌头翘上去 ⑤ 半元音 2 个 /j/ 嘴形成微笑状,舌尖抵住下齿,舌面贴住上颚,声带振动。 (发音类似yeah) eg: year(年份),young(年轻的),yellow(黄色的),you[ju?] /w/ 双唇缩小并向前突出,舌后部抬起,嘴慢慢向两旁滑开,声带振动。 (类似/u:/,“乌”音) eg: wait(等待),watch(手表),water(水) [ju?]发“又”音 辅音共28个,分六类 爆破音6个 摩擦音10个 清辅音:/p/, /t/, /k/ 清辅音:/f/, /s/, /θ/, /?/, /h/ 浊辅音:/b/, /d/, /g/ 浊辅音:/v/, /z/, /?/, /?/, /r/ 破擦音6个 鼻音3个 /m/, /n/, /?/ 清辅音:/tr/, /ts/, /t?/ 边辅音1个 /l/ 浊辅音:/dr/, /dz/, /? / 半元音2个 /w/, /j/ 阶段小结 4. 音节 音节含义:是读音的基本单位,任何单词的读音,都是分解为一个个音节朗读。 划分音节方式: (1)一个元音音素(音素不是字母)可构成一个音节,[ti?] (2)一个元音音素和一个或几个辅音音素结合也可以构成一个音节。[te?k] (3)一般说来,元音音素可以构成音节,辅音音素不响亮,不能构成音节。 但英语辅音音素中有 4 个辅音[m],[n],[ng],[l]是响音,它们和辅音音素结合,也可构成音节。它们构成的音节往往出现在词尾,一般是非重读音节。 音节分类: 单音节词:一个音节 dog [d?g] take[te?k] tea[ti?] 双音节词:两个音节 people [?pi:pl] 多音节词:三个或三个以上音节 vegetable [?ved?t?bl] 注意:音节的核心是元音, 元音可以单独构成音节,也可以与辅音字母一起构成音节. 另外, 不要将元音音素和元音字母搞混. 划分音节是按元音音素来划的,如果元音字母不发音,那就不能构成音节了,如上面的take;如果有两个元音字母在一起, 但只发一个元音, 仍然算一个音节, 如tea . 练习:拼单词并说出是几音节词 bear /be?/ white /wait/ apple /??pl/ keep /ki:p/ head /hed/ elephant / ?elif?nt/ mouse /maus/ orange /'?r?nd?/ begin /b?'g?n/ hello /he'l?u/ busy /'b?z?/ feet /fi:t/ butterfly/'b?t?,fla?/ fantastic/f?n't?st?k/ understand/ /,?nd?'st?nd/ desk /desk/ lamp /l?mp/ 单音节词 双音节词 三音节词 双音节词 单音节词 单音节词 单音节词 单音节词 单音节词 单音节词 双音节词 双音节词 双音节词 单音节词 三音节词 三音节词 三音节词 二. 字母的分类 英语中共有26个字母 元音字母5个:a、e、i、o、u 半元音字母2个:r、y 其他全为辅音字母:19个 常见字母组合的发音 音标 (下一页详细) 音节 字母的分类 课程小结 英语音标分元音和辅音 1. 元音共20个 (1) 单元音共12个:前元音 /i:/, /I/, /e/, /?/ 中元音 /?:/, /?/, /?/ 后元音 /u:/, /?/, /?:/, /?/, /ɑ:/ (2) 双元音共8个:/eI/, /aI/, /?I/, /I?/, /e?/, /??/ , /a?/, /??/ 2. 辅音共28个,分六类 (1) 爆破音6个 (2) 摩擦音10个 清辅音:/p/, /t/, /k/ 清辅音:/f/, /s/, /θ/, /?/, /h/ 浊辅音:/b/, /d/, /g/ 浊辅音:/v/, /z/, /?/, /?/, /r/ (3) 破擦音6个 (4) 鼻音3个 /m/, /n/, /?/ 清辅音:/tr/, /ts/, /t?/ (5) 边辅音1个 /l/ 浊辅音:/dr/, /dz/, /? / (6) 半元音2个 /w/, /j/ 学生反馈和课后作业 一、填空 1. 英语共有_______个音标. 2. 音标分为______音和______音两大类. 3. 元音有________个, 分为_____元音和_____元音. 4. 辅音有________个, 按声带振动情况分为____辅音和____辅音. 5. 英语元音字母有________个, 写出这些字母_______________________. 二、复习并熟练本节课元音、辅音的发音。下节课抽查。 三、所有音标抄写两遍,会认会写。 Thank you!

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  • ID:4-6465117 书面表达微技能五:语言的丰富性--句式多样性策略(无答案)

    初中英语/中考专区/二轮专题/题型专区/书面表达

    书面表达微技能五:语言的丰富性--句式多样性策略 复习书面表达微技能:1.审题策略 2.主题句、支持句策略3.扩句策略 4.1+N拓展策略。 扩句:书面表达以短句为主,长句为辅。在句子中添加人物、地点、时间、形容词、副词、以及各种从句等,以提高表达的准确性、全面性。 Li Ping is reading. Li Ping is reading in the classroom.(加地点) Li Ping is reading in the classroom with his best friend.(加人物) Li Ping is reading carefully in the classroom with his best friend.(加副词) Li Ping is reading carefully in the classroom with his best friend who often shares great books with him.(加定语从句) At the moment, Li Ping is reading carefully in the classroom with his best friend who often shares great books with him.(加时间) At the moment, Li Ping , our monitor, is reading carefully in the classroom with his best friend who often shares great books with him.(加同位语) 请根据所给的主题句与支持句的主干部分,运用1+N拓展策略,丰富文本内容。 I’m having a wonderful time in Changshan. I’ve done so many things. For example, I’ve visited Sanqu Stone Forest, Hushan Park and Wenfeng Tower. The tower is very tall.What’s more, I’ve tasted Changshan Huyou. Huyou is very delicious. I have also been to Qingshi Stone Park.There you can see many kinds of stones in different shapes and sizes. Huyou and stones are the symbol of Changshan. 书面表达微技能5:语言的丰富性-句式多样性策略 句式多样性能体现语言丰富性。只有句式多样化,文章才会生动有趣,充满活力。句式多样性指的是同一内容用不同的句式来表达。也可指通过变换句子的结构,使文章的语言灵动而不单一。 【微技能指导】 一、不同句式表达同一内容 例1:2017宁波中考作文 三年的初中生活让你收获满满。校英语报邀你写一篇短文,给即将升入九年级的学弟学妹或他们的父母提一些建议。请你结合自己的学习经历选择其中一个对象,阐述你的观点。 这篇文章需用到提建议的句型。以建议学弟学妹要多参加各种社团为例: 1. You join some clubs. 2. I you should join some clubs. 3. I you to join some clubs. 4. join some clubs? 5. joining some clubs? 6. join some clubs.(尽力) 7. join some clubs.(不要忘记) 8. join some clubs.(是一个好主意) 9. to join some clubs.(对于你来说很重要) 10. (join )some clubs will be good for you. 例2:类似的例子还有兴趣与爱好话题的描述,我们如果通篇使用I like.那该是多么单调啊!如果用丰富的句型替换,如: be crazy about, be fond of, be interested in, be good at, nothing is more enjoyable than ..., spend lots of time doing sth...等来替换like,文章会更有层次。这就是不同句式表达同一内容的方法策略。 I like playing basketball.(改写句子) (1) . (2) . 二、变换句型结构 主语句式多样性 一篇文章可使用不同的主语,也是语言丰富性的一种体现。如下面描述语言学习问题的片段: My biggest problem is that I can't memorize English words. I usually spend lots of time doing that, but it doesn't work. Another thing I feel difficult is that I'm afraid to speak English in front of class. What’s more, I'm worried about my writing. There are always a few mistakes in my writing. What should I do? 从以上片段可以看出:不同主语的变换,尽显英语风采。 下面介绍5种不同主语句式,并仿写句子。 it做形式主语或动词不定式作主语: It is + adj.+for sb + to do sth. It is necessary for us to eat fresh fruit and vegetables every day. 动名词作主语 Reading English newspapers is a good way to improve your English. 被动语态 English is spoken by the most people around the world. There be 句型 There are lots of ways to learn English well. 在原有的句子前添加一个主语 Another thing I feel relaxed is that we can listen to music before class. 改写的妙用 He should get to school on time. He get to school on time. 2. The film is very interesting. The film is interesting. 3. He speaks good English. He speaks English . 4. In fact, it's quite easy. ,it's quite easy. 5. Because the mobile phone is very good, it is sold everywhere in China. The mobile phone is very good, it is sold everywhere in China. I got up early this morning. I could catch the first bus.(合并句子) I got up early this morning I could catch the first bus. Meimei, a 17-year-old gird, has been learning English for 12 years. (同位语换成非限制性定语从句) Meimei, who , has been learning English for 12 years. 8. He wants to go to Zhejiang University. He works really hard. (目的状语) go to Zhejiang University, he works really hard. 9. The sight was really amazing. He took lots of photos. (合并句子) The sight was amazing he took lots of photos. Our school trip was very wonderful. (改感叹句) 【微技能训练】 今年的九月,你要开始高中生活了,这个阶段是我们人生中的一个重要时期。在即将到 来的暑假中,为了更好地适应高中的学习生活,你要打算做些什么? 要求: 1.文中不得出现真实的人名、校名及地名:2.词数在110词左右。 What will/are you going to do during the coming summer holiday? . 2. 所给文本内容: I will enter senior high school in September. I will do something during the summer vacation.First, I will spend a month reviewing(复习)lessons. Second, I will take exercise.It can keep me strong. Third, I will make myself well-prepared by previewing(预习)the lessons in senior high school. Finally, I will learn to take care of myself.I hope that I will live a wonderful life. 3.请根据题目要求,综合运用我们所学的写作微技能,如扩句、1+N拓展策略、句式多样性等,对所给的文本进行修改,使文本更具有逻辑性和丰富性。 (1) First, I will spend a month reviewing lessons. Second, I will take exercise.It can keep me strong. Third, I will make myself well-prepared by previewing the lessons in senior high school. (4)Finally, I will learn to take care of myself.

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  • ID:4-6464168 初三英语语法专题时态与语态强化与提升训练(含答案)

    初中英语/中考专区/二轮专题/词法/动词时态

    ( …………○…………外…………○…………装…………○…………订…………○…………线…………○………… ) ( ※※请※※不※※要※※在※※装※※订※※线※※内※※答※※题※※ ) ( …………○…………内…………○…………装…………○…………订…………○…………线…………○………… ) 初三英语语法专题时态与语态强化与提升训练 一、单选题 1.My mother _______dinner now. A.?is cooking????????????????????????B.?does????????????????????????????C.?cooks????????????????????????????D.?cook 2.—Where's Sam? —He _______ for a test in his room. A.?study???????????????????????????B.?studies??????????????????C.?studied?????????????????D.?is studying 3.????? Mr. Smith who I didn't know came to visit you when you ?????out. A.?A, are?????????????????????????????B.?A, were?????????????????????????????C.?the, are?????????????????????????????D.?the, were 4.— I called you this time yesterday, but there was no answer.?????? — Oh, I'm sorry. I ______ dinner at my friends' home.?????? A.?have??????????????????????????????B.?had??????????????????????????????C.?was having??????????????????????????????D.?have had 5.(2015?贵州铜仁)—Did you see Tom yesterday? —No, I _______ him for a long time. A.?didn't see????????????????????????????B.?hasn't seen????????????????????????C.?saw????????????????????????D.?haven't seen 6.——Were you at home at 7:00 yesterday evening? I called you but no one was there. ——Sorry, we ___________ a movie at the theatre at that time. A.?watch????????????B.?were watching?????????????C.?watched???????????????????????D.?are watching 7.--Tomorrow will be Father's Day.What will you do for your father? -----I will say “I love you,Daddy” as soon as he????? ?up. A.?will wake?????????????????????????????B.?is waking?????????????????????????????C.?wakes?????????????????????????????D.?woke 8.He???? ?his home town for twenty years.He really misses it! ? A.?has been away from??????????? ??B.?left????????????????????? ?C.?has left????????????????????? ?D.?is away from 9.Many leaders ________ to attend the Closing Ceremony(闭幕式)of Winter Olympics in February. A.?be invited????????????????B.?were invited???????????????? C.?will be invited????????????????D.?have been invited 10.Lily __________ Hong Kong for a week, and she'll come back tomorrow.. ???? A.?has gone to????????????????????B.?has been in???????????????????? C.?has been to????????????????????D.?has gone in 11.一 How long ??????????your brother ______ this camera? — For two weeks. ?have; bought??????????????????????B.?have; had????????????????????? ?C.?has; had??????????????????????D.?has; bought 12.Both his parents look sad. Maybe they _________what's happened to him. A.?knew?????????????????????????B.?have known?????????????????????????C.?must know?????????????????????????D.?will know? 13.The key _______ on the table when I left. A.?was left????????????????????????????B.?will be left??????????????????????????? ?C.?is leaving????????????????????????????D.?leave 14.While she ?????????, I was watching TV. A.?was cooking?????????????? ?B.?gets out of the room?????????????? ?C.?comes to visit me???????????????D.?is working 15.— Is your mother a teacher? — Yes, she is. She ________ at a junior high school. ?taught???????????????????????????B.?teaches????????????????????? ??C.?will teach???????????????????????????D.?is teaching 16.It has been three years since I ______ a teacher. A.?become?????????????????????????? B.?became???????????????????????? ??C.?becoming??????????????????????????D.?to become 17.Everything he ____ away from him before he returned to his hometown. A.?took??????????????????B.?had been taken????????????????? ?C.?had had been taken??????????????????D.?had taken 18.Will you get wet if I ______ the experiment? A.?will do????????????????????????????????????B.?do???????????????????????????????????? C.?does????????????????????????????????????D.?did 19.—Writing _____ among our school subjects this term. —Great! It's my favorite. A.?lists????????????????????????????????????B.?was listed????????????????????????????????????C.?is listed 20.— Must old people ________ to politely? — Yes, you ________. ?speak, must????????????? ?B.?spoken, need???????? ???C.?be spoken, must??????????????D.?be spoke, need 21.Each year quite a lot of food ??????around the world. It's really time for us to do something. A.?was wasted??????????B.?is wasted?????????????C.?wasted???????????????????????D.?will be wasted 22.—What did Tom say to you just now, John? —He asked????????????? . A.?why I am so happy today B.?who did I play football with after school C.?if I could go to the cinema with him tonight 23.—Mike, you look so excited! —Yeah! There ________ a tennis game played by my favourite player this evening. ?will have????????????????B.?is going to be??????????????? ?C.?is going to have????????????????D.?are going to be 24.I have ??????the bike since two weeks ago. A.?buy????????????????????????????????????????B.?bought????????????????????????????????C.?had 25.All members_______ are admitted to the auditorium. A.?have got the tickets?????????????????????????????????????????B.?that had got the tickets C.?that have got the tickets??????????????????????????????????D.?had got the tickets 二、填空题 1.Who ________?(come) to your office yesterday? 2.Jim ________?(go) to the library this morning. 3Tom ________?(visit) many places of interest since he came to China. 4.________?you ever ________?(lock) your keys in the house? 5.Think hard and you ________ (come) up with some good ideas. 6..We ________?(listen) to the teacher when the head teacher ________?(come) in yesterday. 7.I was so poor before I came to China, so I s________ my guitar to my neighbor for $200. 8.Where ________ (be) you last night? I ________?(hurt) myself playing soccer yesterday. Great changes ________(take place) in those villages in the last ten years. 三、语法填空 1.What ________your name? (be) 2.What color________the pen? (be) 3.His books ________(translate) into three languages last year. 4.My mum is________(watch) TV now. 5.I ________(have) this computer since I ________(come) here. 答案 一、单选题 1-5 ADBCD 6-10 BCABB 11-15 CBAAB 16-20 BCBCC 21-25 BCBCC 二、填空题 1. came? 2. went 3.has visited 4.Have;locked 5. will come 6.were listening;came 7.sold 8.were 9.hurt 10. have taken place 三、语法填空 1. is 2. is 3. were translated 4 watching 5. have had;came ( 1 )

  • ID:4-6460787 2019年山东省莱芜中考英语试题Word版含答案无听力材料和音频

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    山东省济南市2019年初中学业水平考试B卷 英 语 试 卷 (供原莱芜市考生使用) 注意事项: 1.答题前,考生务必先认真核对条形码上的姓名、准考证号和座号,然后将本人姓名、座号和准考证号填写在答题卡的相应位置。 2.本试题分第I卷和第II卷两部分,第I卷1 - 8页为选择题(65分); 第II卷9--11页 为非选择题(55分);全卷满分120分。考试时间为120分钟。 3.请将第I卷、第II卷两部分答案填写在答题卡上,填在试卷或其它住置不得分.第I卷选择题答案用2B铅笔涂写。第II卷必须使用0.5毫米黑色签字笔书写. 考试结束后,由监考教师把第I卷、第II卷和答题卡一并收回. 第I卷(选择题共65分) I听力测试(共20小题,计20分)(每小题约有8秒钟的答题时间) (一) 录音中有五个句子,每个句子听一遍,然后从每小题A、B、C中选出能对每个句子 做出适当反应的答语。 1.A. She's in hospital . B. Sorry to hear that. C. Glad to see you. 2.A. It was wonderful. B. That’s easy. C. Not at all. 3.A. Good luck. B. Never. C. It’s far from here. 4.A. Take it easy. B. That’s all right. C. Yes, I’d love to. 5.A. Congratulations! B. Thank you. C. You are welcome. (二) 录音中有五组对话,听对话两遍后,从每小题A、B、C中选出能回答所给问题的正确答案。 6.What does Peter like doing? A. Fishing. B.Swimming C.running 7.What time is it now? A. 8:30. B. 8:45. C. 9:10. 8.Where did Mike go yesterday afternoon? A. To the hospital. B. To the cinema C. To the farm. 9. Why hasn't Tom gone to school yet? A.Because he can't find his coat. B.Because he can't find his books. C.Because he can't find his keys. 10.How does the woman wish to travel around the world? A. By car. B. By bus. C. By bike. (三)录音中有一段话,听对话两遍后,从每小题A、B、C中选出能回答所给问题的正确答案。(录音播放前,你将有40秒钟的读题时间) 11.Where does the man come from? A.He is from France. B.He is from America. C.He is from Canada. 12.When did the man arrive in Jinan? A.Yesterday. B.Last week. C.The day before yesterday. 13.What’s wrong with the man? A.He has a sore throat. B.He has a sore leg. C.He has a headache. 14.What’s the weather like in Jinan? A. Raining. B. Cold. C.Dry 15.What does the man come here for? A.Visiting the park. B.Visiting his friends. C.Buying some flowers. (四)录音中有一篇短文,听短文两遍后,从每小题A、B、C中选出能完成表格的正确答案。(录音播放前,你将有40秒钟的读题时间) Information about Martin Which country Martin studies in a school in(16)_____. How old Students in Martin's school are (17)_____. Where Martin's day begins (18)_____. How many Martin has(19)_____lessons in the morning. What to do Martin likes(20)_____after lunch. A. Canada B. America C. Australia A. between 8 and 12 B. between 11 and 15 C.between 12 and 15 A. in the radio room B. in his home class C. in the dining hall 19. A. three B. four C. five A. doing his homework B. listening to school news C. singing in the music club 一 单项选择(共 15小题 计 15 分) 从小每小题A、B、C、D中选岀一个能填入句中空白处的最佳答案。 21.—Have you ever seen new movie, The Wandering Earth(流浪地球)? —Yes, and Wu Jing is my favorite actor. A. A B. an C. the D.\ 22.—I'm always afraid to ask questions because of my poor . —You'd better practice speaking English more. introduction B. information C. pronunciation D. instruction 23.—What do you think of Tom? —He is a(n) boy who is always telling the truth. A. Humorous B. honest C. brave D.creative 24.They are going to have their wedding the morning of October 1st. A. on B. in C. of D.at 25.—I think Mrs. Lin is the most excellent teacher in our school. — _____She teaches us well and cares about us a lot. Simply B.mainly C. Exactly D. Mostly 26.—Happy birthday, Mr. Wang! Here are some presents from —Thank you so much, boys and girls! A. both B. neither C.either D.all 27. Daily homework is necessary, __too much homework may bring harm to students A.so B. but C. for D. or 28.If you want to try some local food, don't _____food festival this weekend. A. miss B. carry C. hold D. bring 29.Pass me the dictionary, please. I want to____ some new words. A. look for B. look up C. look after D. look though 30.---____do you communicate with your foreign friends? ----By writing e-mails. A How B. Why C. Where D.When —I just saw Peter in the library. —It be him. He is studying in the classroom. A. needn’t B. mustn't C. shouldn't D. can't 32.I’ m sorry I can't finish the task on time because I only 10 minutes. A. will give B. was given C. am given D. gave 33.It is 4:30 pm. Ben and Leon ,____their work. so they are playing chess now. A. finish B. finished C. have finished D. will finish 34.----Could you tell me___________? ―Without the teacher's help, it was impossible for me to get the prize. A. how did you do it B. when you did it C. why did you do it D. how you did it 35.—Are you willing to live on Mars one day? ---- . It sounds interesting, but it still worries me. A. I’m not sure B. Sure, I will C. That’s all right D. I hope so 三、阅读理解(共20小题,计30分) 阅读下列短文,然后从每小题A、B、C、D四个选项中选出能回答所提问 题或完成所给句子的最佳答案。 A Time flies. My summer vacation ended in the blink of an eye, but one thing is still on my mind. From July 25 to 27, I worked as a volunteer at the Wolong China Giant Panda Garden in Sichuan. I experienced the life of being a panda keeper. My work included cleaning the pandas’ home, feeding the pandas and making food for them.The panda I took care of was named Jingke. When I went to feed him, he would stretch (伸出)one of his forefeet out on a shelf that hung on the fence and wait for his food. He would quickly grab the food as soon as I brought it to him. Can you guess what would happen next? Jingke would lie down and begin to eat. I could hear him crunching(嘎吱作响地咀嚼)on his food and see him twisting his body around like a dancer. It was really cute. This was one of the most interesting things I saw when I worked there. When I fed Jingke, I touched his fur(毛).Most people think that panda's fur would be soft. But actually, panda's fur is very hard. It felt like I was touching needles. I looked at his teeth, too --- they were sharp and big. No wonder the panda keepers told us that pandas are not only cute, but also dangerous. I am happy to be so close to the pandas. This experience lets me know that it is not easy to be a panda keeper. 36.What is the meaning of the underlined phrase in paragraph 1? A. 瞬息万变 B. 眨眼之间 C.成年累月 D.一夜之间 37.As a panda keeper, what did the writer usually do except ____? A. cleaning the pandas' home B. feeding the pandas C. training the pandas D. making food for the pandas 38.What was Jingke like when he was eating? A. A fighter. B. A baby. C. A dancer D. A snake 39.According to this passage, we can know that panda's fur is . A. hard B. soft C. comfortable D. smooth 40.What is the best title of this passage? A. A panda lover B. Keeping pandas C. The pandas in Wolong D. My experience as a panda keeper B Egypt is one of the oldest civilizations (文明) in the world. It has great culture and history. Let’s take a look at some wonderful places in the country. Arabian Desert Do you think it might be fun to ride a camel in the desert? If so. you should go to the Arabian Desert. It is also known as the Eastern Desert. It takes up nearly one-quarter of Egypt's land. Riding a camel is fun. Camels kneel down to let you sit on them. Luxor If you want to see ancient palaces and buildings, Luxor is a great place to go. People there call it the "open-air museum of ancient Egypt". Many people visit Luxor every year. Some famous places there include the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens. The Great Sphinx The Great Sphinx is a statue of a lion with a man's head. It's very large. The Sphinx is about 240 feet long (about 73 m) and 65 feet (about 20 m) high. Its eyes are two meters high! For hundreds of years, the Sphinx has guarded the Great Pyramid of Khufu. 41. What can we know about the Arabian Desert? A. It is the third largest desert in the world. B. It takes up nearly one-quarter of Egypt’s land. C. It is located in Western Africa. D. It is famous for its large number of camels. 42.What does the underlined word "it” refer ta in this passage? A. Dessert. B. Egypt C. Valley. D. Luxor. 43.Which of the following places is NOT in Egypt? A. Luxor. B. The Valley of the Kings. C. The Valley of the Queens. D. Kilimanjaro. 44. _____ guards the Great Pyramid of Khufu. A. The Eastern Desert B. The Great Sphinx C. The Nile River D. The Arabian Desert 45.The article is mainly about _____. A. the history of Africa B. famous pyramids in Egypt C. famous places in Egypt D. the largest country in Africa C Are you short-sighted? If you are, your parents might have tried to do something to fix it, such as having you get an eye massage(按摩),take medicine or even get surgery(手术).People who offer these services or products often say that they can reduce or even cure short sight. However, you will no longer see advertisements like this before 1ong.The government has issued a notice to ban(禁止)businesses from using words like ’recovery" or "short sight cure"in their advertisements. The notice says that short sight cannot be completely cured with current medical technology. Therefore, these advertisements could mislead children and their parents, Young people can prevent and control short sight by spending more time outside and less time in front of books or computers. People who have sight problems should first go to a hospital and let a doctor decide what to do. More than 450 million Chinese have suffered from short sight since June 2018. Short sight rates are around 30 percent for primary school students, 60 percent for junior high school students and 80 percent for senior high school students. This is likely because students spend a lot of time reading books and using electronic devices. To reduce short sight among young people, the government made a new plan last August. The plan is designed to limit the amount of time children spend playing video games, as well as limit the production of new video games. 46.Some people say that they can cure short sight to___. A. show off their high-leveled skills B. sell more products and services C.share their medical technology D.prove that eye massages are useful 47. Advertisements with the word“____” will be banned by the government. A. recovery B. eyesight C. short sight D. surgery 48.If you have a sight problem, you should ____first. A. get surgery B. get an eye massage C. take some medicine D. ask a doctor for advice 49.According to this passage, which group has the highest short sight rate? A. Primary school students. B. Junior high school students. C. Senior high school students. D. College students. 50. From the last two paragraphs, we can know that . A. students should be stopped from using mobile phones B.students in lower grades are more likely to get short sight C.production of new video games will be limited D.a law was made to protect the eyesight of people D Wu Yue, a l4-year-old student A Junior High School in Hangzhou, usually has lunch with his classmates in their dining hall. But one day, a newcomer, the school headmaster, joined them at the same table. They talked about the food that the dining hall offered and had a nice chat. Wu is not alone. Many students across China have the chance to eat with their headmasters. The government issued a notice on food safety and nutrition(营养)management in schools, asking headmasters from kindergarten to high school to have meal with students. The rule took effect(生效)on April 1st. Many schools now have seats for school managers when they eat with students in the dining hall. After talking with them, the managers have to write reports and make suggestions to dining hall workers. Many students were asked about the food that they liked most. To their surprise, their favorite dishes appeared in the dining hall later. "It's not just about the food. It makes me feel that I have a say in school," explained one student. "My ideas are valued." Some headmasters regard these mealtime conversations as their main chance to communicate with students. And they notice that some students prefer meat to vegetables. "We are thinking about how to improve the dining hairs dishes and provide students with a healthy diet," one headmaster said. As students become more familiar with the school managers, they begin to express their own points of view. It's important to understand students’ requirements. Our practice shows the school’s sense of responsibility.” another headmaster said. Who is the newcomer to have lunch with students at the dining hall? The new student. The school teacher. C.The school headmaster. D.The dining hall worker. 52.When did the rule take effect? A. On April 1st. B. On March 1st. C. On January 1st. D. On May 1st 53.What do the school managers have to do after eating with students? A.They have to take a walk with students in the schoolyard. B.They have to play games with students on the playground. C.They have to help the dining hall workers do some cleaning. D.They have to write reports and make suggestions to dining hall workers. 54.According to paragraph 4, what are the school managers thinking about? A.How to improve their dining hall conditions. B.How to provide students with a healthy diet. C. How to communicate with the parents. D. How to make friends with the students. 55.From this passage, we can infer(推断) . A.students are not satisfied with the school's management B.students now prefer fruit and vegetables to meat C.school managers pay more attention to food safety and nutrition D.the relationship between teachers and students becomes better.. 第Ⅱ卷(非选择题共55分) 四、单词拼写与运用(共8小题,计8分) A.根据句意及汉语提示,写出各单词的正确形式,每空填一词 56.After a long walk, he felt (饥饿的)and thirsty. 57.As we all know, hard work is the key to (成功). 58.You must check your papers (认真地)in the exams. 59.We all take (骄傲)in the great achievements of our country. B.根据句子意思,用括号中所给词的正确形式填空,每空填一词。 60.Could you please speak more (slow)? I can't follow you. 61.He enjoyed (he)at the party that night. 62.He won the (two)place in the dragon boat race. 63.He is a (love) boy, very gentle and caring. 五、动词填空(共7空,计7分) 阅读下面短文,用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空(必要时可加情态动词或助动词) If you've ever stayed up late and then gotten up early the next day, you know what ifs like not to get enough sleep. It’s a very uncomfortable feeling. In fact, for many years scientists 64 (believe) that sleep is like food if we don't get enough of it, we might get sick or even die. But now they 65 (start)to wonder just how much sleep we need. Researchers at Imperial College London did a study on fruit flies They found that flies that slept for very short periods of time --about 72 minutes a day ---still 66____ (live)about as long as flies that slept for normal amounts of time. One of the female flies slept for just 4 minutes each day on average. This has led the researchers to wonder if sleep is less necessary than we previously thought. Humans are very different from fruit flies. Sleep 67 (help)repair tissue (组织)when our bodies perform a lot of maintenance (维护).Sleeping allows our bodies 68 (get)well again from the stress we experience each day. But can we really die from not sleeping? No humans have died so far from 69 ____(stay) awake for too long. The current (现在的)world record for sleeplessness 70 ____(hold)by Randy Gardner from the US, who stayed awake for 11 days and 25 minutes in 1964. Scientists have not yet found any animals that don't sleep at all. Even animals that only sleep for short periods are not completely sleepless. 综合填空(共10空,计10分) 阅读短文,根据短文内容及首字母提示在空白处填入一个适当的单词 A young couple decided to go c_____71 in the mountains to celebrate their first year of marriage . They took with them all the t_____72 they would need to go camping - warm clothes, food and a tent . They went up to the mountains and f_____73 the perfect place to set up their tent. After that, they decided to go for a hike (徒步旅行)to see more of the mountains. A_____74 a long hike, they went back to their camp, built a fire and cooked d_____75. Finally, it was time to go to sleep. Sometime in the middle of the n_____76, the wife woke her husband up and said: “Look up at the sky . What do you see?” Her husband answered, “I see m_____77 of stars.” His wife said: “That’s right. W_____78 does that mean to you?” The husband said: “Well, if there are so many stars out there, that means there might a_____79 be a planet (行星) just like ours. And if that’s true, then there could be life on one of those planets. That’s kind of e_____80!” His wife said: “You are wrong. It means that someone has stolen our tent!” 七、阅读表达(共5小题,计10分) 阅读短文,根据要求完成下面各小题。 Most of you will enter high school this autumn. By that time,you'll find yourself immersed in (沉浸于)traditional Chinese culture.83The traditional Chinese culture can help students build cultural confidence. Nowadays, the education focuses more on the traditional Chinese culture. At public schools, the students are called for to recite(背诵)72 ancient poems or articles. Besides Chinese language, other subjects such as fine arts, music and physical education will also focus more on traditional Chinese culture. For example, fine arts will include new lessors on Chinese calligraphy(书法)and painting. China has also seen a growing interest in traditional culture in the private(私立的)education area. It is reported that more than 3,000 traditional private school^, have been built since 2004. They mainly teach traditional Chinese classics(经典). According to Fu Yan, a Chinese language teacher at Hangzhou Xuejun High School, learning about traditional Chinese culture is a good thing for students. 84“At their age, the students may be too young to understand some classics." Fu told Qianjiang Evening News. "However, as their life experience builds up, they may develop their own thoughts about the wisdom(智慧)of the classics, which could be a driving force for their growth." A.根据短文内容简要回答问题。 81. How many ancient poems or articles do the students need to recite at public schools? _________________________________________________ 82.What does FuYan think of learning about traditional Chinese culture? 将短文中画线的句子译成汉语 83._________________________________________________ 84._________________________________________________ 请给短文拟一个适当的标题 85._________________________________________________ 八、书面表达(共1题,计20分) 假定你是李华,你校英语俱乐部将举行以“Good habits make me better”为主题的演讲活动。请根据表格中的信息,写一篇英语演讲稿。 话题 Good habits make me better 好习惯 生活习惯 按时休息、拒绝垃圾食品,经常锻炼…… 学习习惯 课上认真听讲、按时完成作业、爱读书…… ....... ...... 你的感想 ...... 要求:1)包含全部要点,可适当发挥; 不能出现真实的校名及姓名; 开头和结尾已经给出;不计入总词数; 词数控制在80-100词左右。 Good morning, everybody! I'm Li Hua. Today my topic is u Good habits make me better”._________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ That’s all. Thanks for listening! 绝密★启用前 济南市莱芜地区2019年初中学业水平考试 英语试题参考答案及评分标准 第I卷(选择题共65分) (—)一?三题答案: 1-5BABCA 6-10CBACA 11-15ACACB 16-20BCBAC 21-25CCBAC 26-30DBABA 31-35DBCDA 36-40BCC AD 41-45BDDBC 46-50BADCC 51-55CADBC (二)评分说明: 1-35题,每小题1分; 36-55题,每小题1.5分; 与答案不符,不得分。 第II卷(非选择题,共55分) 四、单词拼写与运用 (一)答案: 56. hungry 57. success 58. carefully 59. pride 60. slowly 61. himself 62. second 63. lovely / loving (二)评分说明: 1.本题共8分,每小题1分; 2.与答案不符,不得分。 五、动词填空 (―)答案: 64. have believed 65. are starting 66. lived 67. can help 68. to get 69. staying 70. is held (二)评分说明: 1.本题共7分, 2.与答案不符,不得分。 六、综合填空 (一)答案: 71. camping 72. things 73 found 74. After 75. dinner 76. night 77. millions 78. What 79. also 80. exciting (二)评分说明: 本题共10分,每空1分; 与答案不符,不得分。 七、阅读表达 (一)答案: 81.72 或 The students/They need to recite 72 ancient poems or articles. 82.Learning about traditional Chinese culture / It is a good thing/helpful/ for students. 83.中国传统文化/传统的中国文化可以帮助学生树立/建立/构建文化自信。 84.学生们在这个年龄可能还太小,不能理解/明白/领悟一些经典。 85.The education focuses more on the traditional Chinese culture/ The traditional Chinese culture is focused more on education/ The education on the traditional Chinese culture. (二)评分说明: 1.本题共10分,每小题2分; 2.虽与答案表达方式不同,但与所给参考答案意思一致,无语言错误,也可酌情给分;若 85 题答案写出 The traditional Chinese culture 给 1 分。 八、 书面表达 (一)One possible version: Good habits make me better Good morning, everybody! I’m Li Hua. Today my topic is “Good habits make me better”. Good habits play an important role in our life. I never choose to stay up late at night because it is bad for my health. Although some of my friends are crazy about hamburgers and fried chicken, I seldom eat junk food. What’s more, taking more exercise can make us stronger and healthier. So I often play basketball with my friends on weekends. When it comes to studies, there is no doubt that it is necessary to have good habits. During class I always listen to our teachers carefully. After class I finish my homework on time. Besides, reading is my favorite. In a word, good habits influence me a lot and make me better. That’s all. Thanks for your listening! (二)评分说明: 要求考生用适当的时态、语态、句式和词语,完整准确地表述所提示的内容,书写工整。 分四档评分: 1.短文通顺完整,表达清楚,要点齐全,语言基本无误,17-20分; 2.短文较通顺完整,表达基本清楚,要点比较齐全,语言有少量错误,12-16分; 3.能写明基本要点,短文不够通顺完整,语言有较多错误,但尚能达意,6-11分; 4.仅能写明部分要点,短文不完整,语言错误多,影响意思表达,0-5分。 英语试题参考答案及评分标准 第2页(共2页)

  • ID:4-6460784 2019年山东省济南市中考英语试题Word版含答案有听力材料无音频

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    绝密★启用前 济南市2019年初三年级学业水平考试 英语试题 本试题分选择题部分和非选择题部分,共10页,满分为150分,考试用时120分钟。 答题前,请考生务必将自己的姓名、座号和准考证号填写在答题卡上,并同时将考点、姓 名、准考证号和座号填写在试卷规定的位置。 答题时,选择题部分每小题选出答案后,用2B铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑; 如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。非选择题部分,用0.5毫米黑色签字笔在 答题卡上题号所提示的答题区域作答。直接在试题上作答无效。 考试结束后,将本试题和答题卡一并交回。 选择题部分共105分 T.听力测试(30分)< A)听录音,从每组句子中选出一个你所听到的句子如每个句子听一遍。 A. Please come here, Amy. A. I play tennis once a week. A. Were you late fbr school? A. Tina has long straight hair. A.What5s his phone number? B. Lefs go to the factory. B. He never eats junk food. B. Do you have a basketball? B. Lisa had* a wonderful idea. B. What's the matter with her? C. This is my sister Cindy. C. She gets up at six o'clock. C. Did you buy any vegetables? C. Anna will be back fiext year. C. Where is our music teacher? B)听录音,从每题A、B、C三幅图画中选出与诟到的对话内容相符的一项。每段对话听两遍。 6. A. B. B. 9. A. C. 10. A. C. -2 .5 7.A. B. B. 绝密★启用前 济南市2019年初三年级学业水平考试 英 语 试 题 本试题分选择题部分和非选择题部分,共10页,满分为150分,考试用时120分钟。 答题前,请考生务必将自己的姓名、座号和准考证号填写在答题卡上,并同时将考点、姓名、准考证号和座号填写在试卷规定的位置。 答题时,选择题部分每小题选出答案后,用2B铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑; 如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。非选择题部分,用0.5毫米黑色签字笔在答题卡上题号所提示的答题区域作答。直接在试题上作答无效。 考试结束后,将本试题和答题卡一并交回。 选择题部分共105分 T.听力测试(30分)< A)听录音,从每组句子中选出一个你所听到的句子如每个句子听一遍。 A. Please come here, Amy. A. I play tennis once a week. A. Were you late fbr school? A. Tina has long straight hair. A.What5s his phone number? B. Lefs go to the factory. B. He never eats junk food. B. Do you have a basketball? B. Lisa had* a wonderful idea. B. What's the matter with her? C. This is my sister Cindy. C. She gets up at six o'clock. C. Did you buy any vegetables? C. Anna will be back fiext year. C. Where is our music teacher? B)听录音,从每题A、B、C三幅图画中选出与诟到的对话内容相符的一项。每段对话听两遍。 6. A. B. B. 9. A. C. 10. A. C. -2 .5 7.A. B. B. I、听力测试(30分) A)听录音,从每组句子中选出一个你所听到的句子如每个句子听一遍。 1. A. Please come here, Amy. B. Let’s go to the factory. C. This is my sister Cindy. 2. A. I play tennis once a week. B. He never eats junk food. C. She gets up at six o'clock. 3. A. Were you late for school? B. Do you have a basketball? C. Did you buy any vegetables? 4. A. Tina has long straight hair. B. Lisa had a wonderful idea. C. Anna will be back next year. 5. A.What5s his phone number? B. What's the matter with her? C. Where is our music teacher? B. Lefs go to the factory. B. He never eats junk food. B. Do you have a basketball? B. Lisa had* a wonderful idea. B)听录音,从每题A、B、C三幅图画中选出与听到的对话内容相符的一项。每段对话听两遍。 C)在录音中,你将听到一段对话及五个问题。请根据对话内容及问题选择正确答案。对话及问题听两遍。 A. Food. B. Water. C. Paper. A. Four. B. Six. C. Ten. A. At about 7:00. B. At about 8:00. C. At about 9:00. A. Play chess. B. Have a talk. C. Sing a song. A. Cooking. B. Writing. C. Shopping. D)在录音中,你将听到一篇短文及五个问题。请根据短文内容及问题选择正确答案。短文及问题听两遍。 16. A. On Friday. B. On Monday. C. On Wednesday. 17. A. She wrote a letter. B. She sent a postcard. C. She made a phone call. 18. A. Near a bus stop. B. In a post office. C. In her school. 19. A. One day. B. Two days. C. Three days. 20. A. Helpful. B. Lucky. C. Brave. II读音选词 根据所给句意和音标,从每题A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出一个最佳答案。(5分) This book is a /bit/ difficult for me. A. bed B. bat C. bad D. bit 22. The French boy enjoys his school . . /laif/ in China, A. late B. life C. laugh D. knife 23. Is there a swimming /pu?l/ in your neighborhood? A. pool B. peel C. push D.pale 24. The movie star needs some /?pra?v?t/ time to relax herself. A. project B. provide C. product D. private 25. It took some photos with the new /?k?m?r?/ on my birthday. A. cinema B. calendar C. camera D. kilometer III. 选择填空 从毎题A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出一个最佳答案。(20分) 26. —Hi, Bob._____? —I'm fine, thanks. What's this B. Where are you C. Who's that D. How are you —Is this your brother's hat? —No, it isn't. The black one is . A. his B. him C she D. her —I often eat apples. —Me, too. apple a day keeps the doctor away. A. A B. An C. The D./ ―What does your cousin look like? Is he tall or ? —He is tall. And he is strong. A. short B. thin C.long D. small 一My favorite sport is baseball. —So you can the baseball club. A. give B. play C. join D.meet 一Hello. Is Gina there? 一Sorry, she's not home. to B. at C. on D.of 32.1 can’t find my ruler, I know it's somewhere m the living room A. so B. if C. but D. bee 33.— is your art teacher? —Mr. Miller. He is my favorite teacher. A. What B. Where C. How D. Who 34. I'm going to the tomorrow. I want to borrow a few books about science. . A. museum B. library C, mountain D. hospital 35. My best friend Alice is much than me. I'm very outgoing. A.. quiet B. quieter C. quietest D. the quietest 36. ―Has Linda washed the clothes? —No, she hasn't. She it after she finishes her homework. A. did B. has done C. will do D. was doing 37. —I'm very sorry, Dad. I failed the math test. ----_____.You've fried very hard. A.You’re welcome B. Sounds good C. That’s for sure D. Never mind —Excuse me. Could you speak a little louder? I can’t hear you —-OK. A. hardly B. cheaply C. clearly D. heavily 39. ―Look! ____ beautiful flowers! —And they smell very nice. A. How B.What C. What a D. What an 40. Allan has a pet dog. I often see him the dog in the morning. A. walk B. walks C. walked D. to walk 41. —Would you like to come to my party next Sunday? —I’d love to, but I . I have an important meeting that day. A. can't B.mustn't C. needn't D.shouldn't Paul and Dale have in common, although they are brothers. A. something B. anything C. everything D, nothing 43. —Eric, playing that computer game. Why not read a book? ―OK, Mom. A. to stop B. stopping C. stops D. stop 44. —When will Sally and Carol arrive? —I don't know. I have here for half an hour. A. come B. left C. waited D. arrived 45. ―What’s up, Tony? ―Well, Mr. King, could you tell ______? A.how did you learn history B. when the art festival is C. where were you yesterday D. what are they drawing IV完形填空 阅读短文,从每题A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出一个能填入文章中相应空白处的最佳答案。(15分) Recently Steve had a car accident and his car was broken. So until the car was 46 . he had to go to work by subway. One day, he noticed a 47 guy at the station at night. He felt 48 for him, so he gave him some money. The homeless guy thanked him for it. The next day again, he noticed the homeless guy at the same place. This time Steve 49 him a meal. The homeless guy thanked him for his 50 . But Steve got curious(好奇的)and asked, “How did you get to this 51 ?” 52 a smile, the homeless guy said, "By showing love." Steve didn't 53 it, so he asked him, "What do you mean by that?" The homeless guy replied, "In my whole life, I made sure that everyone was happy. No matter what happened in my life, I always helped everyone." Steve asked him, “Do you 54 it?", to which the homeless guy replied, “No. It just breaks my heart that the very people I gave money to wouldn't give me a coin 55 I was in need. Son, it is better to build your own house and invite someone in for shelter(庇护)than to 56 them your bricks(砖)while you are building yours. Because one day when you turn around around and look at the place where you planned to build your house, it will be an empty 57 . Then you are the one looking for bricks.” Steve understood what the homeless guy meant and thanked him for the good 58 , Helping others is a good thing. But sometimes, while we are helping others, we 59 our own problems and needs. One must remember that sometimes sharing is better than giving away. You can do a lot more by being in a 60 position instead of bringing yourself into a weaker situation. 46. A. old B. cheap C. ready D. dirty 47. A. rich B. homeless C. smart D. handsome 48. A. happy B. sorry C. angry D.excited 49. A. told B. lent C. sold D. bought 50. A. shyness B. sadness C. kindness D. illness 51. A. point B. hotel C. station D. restaurant 52. A. For B. From C. With D.About 53. A. finish B. discuss C. describe D. understand 54. A. regret , B. need C. study D.plan 55. A. since B. before C. when D. unless 56. A. order B. offer C. show D. throw 57. A. lot B. room C. store D. house 58. A. meal B. advice C. gift D. question 59. A. forget B. believe C. protect D. remember 60. A. difficult B. strange C. special D. strong 补全对话 阅读对话,从每题A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出一个最佳答案完成对话(5分) Helen: Hi, Frank. What are you doing here? Frank: 61 Helen: What? Frank: A toy plane. 62 Helen: Wow, that's great. You can make toys by yourself .Do you sell them? Frank: No. 63 Sometimes I give them to my friends. Helen: It looks so difficult. 64 Frank: My uncle taught me a Do you like it? I can teach you. Helen: Really? 65 A. It is sunny and hot. B. It was raining hard. C. I'm making a plane.D. We're eating dinner. A. You don’t need them. B. She will get there tomorrow C. We came here by plane. D. I like making all kinds of toys 63. A. I sell it for two dollars. B. Let me pay for it. C. We don,t have money. D. I do it just for fun. 64: A. What did he teach? B.How did you learn it? C. Where are the toys? D.Do you have an uncle? 65. A. That’ll be great! B. Here you are. C.That's too bad! D. I’m afraid not. 阅读理解 阅读下列短文,从每题A、B、C、D四个选顼中,选出一个能回答所提问题或完成所给句子的最佳答案。(30分) On April 1st, April Fools Day, friends play fun tricks on each other. One year at college my friends and I wanted to play a really big trick on our teacher, Jason. He was a fun guy who loved tricks. - My friends and I bought 300 balloons and a tot of colored paper. Then we began blowing all the balloons up and filling them with the Colored paper. It took us all day, but in the end we blew up all 300 balloons. Mark, Jason's roommate, gave us the key to their apartment. When Jason left, we went into the apartment, and put all the balloons in Jason’ s bedroom and bathroom. We hid in the bedroom and bathroom and waited for Jason to come home. When Jason came back, he went into the bathroom first. He saw the balloons and shouted, “What?!" And then we began popping(爆裂)the balloons. There was colored paper everywhere! Jason laughed and laughed. 4

  • ID:4-6460773 2019年四川省泸州市中考英语试题(Word版含答案)

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    泸州市二0一九年高中阶段学校招生考试 英 语 试 题 说明: 1. 本试卷分为第一部分(选择题)和第二部分(非选择题)两部分。第一部分(选择题)第1至6页,第二部分(非选择题)第7至8页。 2.第一部分(选择题)满分70分,第二部分(非选择题)满分50分,全卷满分为120分;考试时间为120分钟。 3.答卷前,考生务必将自己的姓名、准考号填写在答题卡上,并在规定位置粘贴考试用条形码。答卷时,考生务必将答案涂写在答题卡上,答在试题卷上无效。考试结束,将试卷和答题卡一并收回。 第一部分(选择题共70分)注意事项: 每小题答案选出后,用2B铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其它答案。 一、基础知识运用(共两节,满分30分) 第一节单项选择(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填人空白处的正确答案,并把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。 1.一Grace, can I have a look at your pictures,please? 一 A. Sure, here you are. B. Don' mention it. C. I can't agree with you. D. I'm sorry to hear that. 2. - Have you heard of the news about America and Russia? -News? No, I haven't. Tell me about . A. them B. Her C.it D. him 3. -Would you like to go there at 8: 30 tomorrow morning? -Why not make it a little ? How about 8:00? A. late B. later C. early D. earlier 4. The 5G network will make it easier for us our life. A. enjoy B. to enjoy C. enjoyed D. enjoying 5. My mother is seriously ill. I have to her at home. A. look at B. look up C. look for D. look after 6. We can't cross the road ,the traffic lights turn green. A. until B. if C. while D.as 7. -Could you share with me of your speaking sill? They’re useful. -Yes, I’ d love to. A. few B. A few C. little D. a little 8. -Your mom a lot in the past few years. -Right. She becomes much older than her age A. changed B. changes C. has changed D. will change 9. Wow, the room looks so bright and tidy! Yes, it_ _ _every day. A. is cleaned B. cleans C. was cleaned D. cleaned 10. I'm expecting . A. how my high school life will be like B. how will my high school life be like C. what my high school life will be like D. what will my high school life be like 第二节 完形填空共(20小题,每小题1分,满分20分)通读下面的短文,然后从后面各题所给的A、 B、 C、D四个选项中,选择可以填入空白处的最佳答案,并把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。 A Tom's mother eyed him and said, "It is very cold and there 11 a lot of snow on the ground. If you go_ 12 your coat, you will catch a cold, and you will be sick. " "But I feel quite warm. " said Tom. "Yes. you do now. That's because there is a big fire in the room." said_ 13 mother. However, Tom thought he knew best, so he went outside with no coat. Finally, he caught a bad cold and cough. He was very sick and had to stay in bed. He was_ 14 sick to play with his friends. When he was in bed, Tom thought about how silly he had been. He would try to do as he 15 when he got well again. 11.A.is B. are C. has D. have 12. A. with B. without C. on D. by 13.A.its B. their C. her D. his 14. A. quite B. very C. too D. rather 15.A tells B, was told C. has told D. is told B The Gordon family were spending a day on the beach. Mr and Mrs. Gordon were sitting on the sand, reading their magazines. Mr. Gordon was mean and only thought about his money. Their twelve-year-old_ 16_. Sandra, was playing in the shallow(浅的) water. Suddenly, a huge wave (浪) 17 Sandra up and carried her out to sea 18_,a lifeguard was on duty and he saw the wave carry Sandra away. He_ 19 along the beach and jumped into the sea. He swam quickly o where the girl, with her head only just above the water, was_ 20 for help. She was so_21 .When the lifeguard reached her, she struggled (挣扎) with him. However, he knew what to do and soon took hold of her and swam back with her to the 22 . By the time he reached it, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon had realized_ 23 had happened, They had run down to the shallow water. Had the_24 of them could swim. They just stood there, and_ 25 their daughter. Had the lifeguard reached_ 26 ? Of course. he had. " That was_ 27 work ,young man, " Mr. Gordon said. He turned to his wife. Give the lifeguard a dollar. " " A dollar!" Sandra cried. "Dad, how can you give him a dollar? He 28 my life. I was half dead. " "Quite r?ght, g?rl," Мr. Gоrdоn ?а?d, рlеа?еd bу h?? dаughеr'? ?dеа оf thе vаluе оf mоnеy. He turned to his wife again and said, "She's_ 29 . She was only half dead. Give him a "half-_ 30 cents. " 16. A. son B. daughter C. granddaughter D. neighbor 17. A. lifted B. cheered C. gave D. shut 18. A. Sadly B. Lately C. Widely D. Luckily 19. A. walked B went C. rushed D. climbed 20. A. thanking B. standing C. running D. shouting 21. A. afraid B. excited C. talented D. moved 22. A. water B. beach C. boat D. sea 23. A. when B. where C. what D. why 24. A. None B. Neither C. Either D. Both 25. A. dressed up B. depended on C. laughed at D worried about 26. A. on time B. at times C with time D. in time 27. A. quick B. slow C. boring D. meaningless 28. A. wasted B. ended C. saved D. took 29. A. wrong B. right C. bad D. crazy 30. A. thirty B. forty C. fifty D. sixty 二、阅读理解(共20小题;每小题2分,满分40分) 阅读下面短文,从每个题所给A、B、C、D四个选项中选出最佳答案,并把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。 A A boy was one day walking in a field at the foot of a hill, when he saw a sheep coming towards him. The poor sheep came running up quite close to him. She then went on a few steps, at the same t?mе turn?ng rоund, аnd lооk?ng uр ?n thе bоу '? fасе, аnd blеаt?ng ( 咪咪叫) lоudlу. The boy had never seen a sheep act in this way before. and wishing to find out what the sheep wanted, he began to follow her across the field. On and on she went, every now and then turning round to see if the boy was coming. At last, she led the way to a place where there was a running river, and a deep pool of water. As soon as the boy came to this place, he saw a baby sheep trying in vain (徒劳地) to get out. It had fallen over the bank into the pool below. The poor mother sheep must have known that better help that she could give was needed to save her little one. From the bank, the boy found that he could just reach the baby sheep. He soon caught hold of it, and lifted it up on the bank. The mother sheep seemed greatly pleased to have her little one again beside her. 31. Why did the mother sheep come to the boy? A. To play with him. B. To get some help. C. To join in walking. D. To look up in his face. 32 How did the boy probably feel when he saw the mother sheep’s actions? A Strange. B. Comfortable. C. Proud. D. Painful. 33. Where did the mother sheep lead the boy? A. A field. B. A hill. C. A river. D. A step. 34. What would probably have happened if the boy had not come? A. The baby sheep would not fall. B. The baby sheep would be dead, C. The mother sheep would be pleased. D. The baby sheep would be back to the mother. 35. What do you think of the boy according to the passage? A. Thankful. B. Stupid. C. Outgoing D. Helpful. B One day a poor man was walking along from house to house. He carried an old wallet in one hand and at every house he asked for a little money to buy something to eat. As he was complaining about his misfortune (不幸), he kept wondering why some people who had so much money were never satisfied and always wanted more. He thought that if he only had enough money to buy food and clothing, he would be very happy and wouldn 't want anything more. At that moment, Fortune came down the street. She saw the poor man and stopped. She said to him. "I want to help you. Hold out your wallet and I will pour this gold into it, but only on this condition. All that falls into your wallet will be gold, but all that hits the ground will turn into sand. Do you understand? " Oh, yes I understand," said the poor man, " Your wallet is old. Don't put too much in it," said Fortune. The poor man opened his wallet and a lot of gold was poured into it. His wallet grew heavy. "You are the richest man in the world now ," said Fortune. "I think you should stop! Your wallet is going to break!" However, the poor man said he wanted one more handful. Fortune added one more handful and the wallet broke. All the gold fell to he ground and turned into sand. The poor man had nothing but his empty wallet. He was as poor as he had been before. 36. Why did the poor man walk along from door to door? A. To visit his friend. B. To try clothing on C. To enjoy nice food. D. To ask for a little money. 37. What could only make the poor man happy at first? A. Big houses and beautiful clothing. B. A lot of gold. C. Enough money for food and clothing. D. Many close friends. 38. What did Fortune pour into the poor man's wallet? A. Sand. B. Gold. C. Food. D. Coins. 39. What do we know about the man at the end of the story? A. He was the richest man. B. His dream came true.C. His wallet was full of sand. D. He became poor again. 40. What does the writer mainly want to tell us? A. Catch all, lose all. B. Silence is gold. C. The more, the better. D. No pains, no gains. C One day a man gave his son some wood to saw (锯; 锯子). The boy did not want to do such work, so after his father had gone away, he threw the saw down, and it broke. "I did not break the saw," said the boy to himself, "it broke itself." He tried to deceive himself with words, but he knew in his heart that they were false words, and he was afraid to meet his father. One day a mother said to her son, who had just returned from school, "It is six o'clock. Your school closes at four -where have you been, my boy?" "Oh, mother," said Ned, "when we play at ball, we forget everything else. We do not think of the time, or of coming home. Is tea ready?" The boy 's mother was cheated. Ned's answer led her to think that he had been playing with his friends. But he had not been playing at all. He had been “kept in” by his teacher, because he had not learned his lessons. He did not like to tell his mother that. He wished her to think that he had been playing. “What a shame it is for you to try to cheat your mother," said something in Ned's heart, as he sat down to his tea. "I don't care," said the boy to himself, “I don't care. I did not tell a lie- I did not say that I was playing. " If we use words which are about to cheat, we tell a lie. Ned's lie was a very bad one, for it looked so like the truth. A lie that looks like the truth is the worst kind of lie. 41. Who broke the saw actually? A. The father. B. The boy. C. The mother. D. Nobody. 42. The underlined word "deceive" probably means“ A.鼓励 B.鞭策C.欺骗 D.惩罚 43. What time did the school close? A. At 14:00. B. At 15:00.C. At6:00. D. At17:00. 44. The boy got home at six on that day, because he_ A. played at ball B. was busy with his lessons C. forgot the time D. was asked to stay by the teacher 45. What does the writer mainly want to tell us? A. A truth is a real lie. B. What looks like a truth is a lie. C. A truth that looks like a lie is a lie. D. A lie that looks real is the worst lie. D Bees (蜜蜂) live in a house that is called a hive. They are of three kinds workers, queens, and drones. They are very wise and busy little creatures (生物体). They all join together to build cells of wax (蜡巢) for their honey. The cells which they build are not round but have six sides. They are all of one shape and size. Each bee takes its proper place, and does its own work. Some go out and gather (采集)honey from the flowers; others stay at home and work inside the hive. . When spring comes, and the flowers begin to come out, the bees leave the hives very early in the morning. They fly away, and gather the sweet juice of the flowers. They do not visit only the flowers near at hand. They go very often more than a mile from their own hives, but they never lose their way. When a shower of rain comes on, they hide themselves in some little holes in a wall, or perhaps among the leaves of a tree, or inside a large flower. Only one queen can live in each hive. If she is lost or dead, the other bees will stop their work. The drones do not work. Before winter comes, all the drones are driven from the hive or killed, so that they may not eat the honey which they did not gather. It is not quite safe for children to touch bees. They have sharp stings (螫针) that they know well how to use to protect themselves. 46. How many kinds of bees are there according to the passage? A.2. B.3. C.4. D.5. 47. What can we know about the cells? A. They are little creatures. B. Their shapes are different. C. They are 6-side-shaped.D. Their sizes aren't the same. 48. In which season do bees usually gather honey? A. Spring. B. Summer. C. Fall. D. Winter. 49. What can we know about bees? A. They visit only the flowers near at hand. B. They leave the hives late in the morning. c. They can find their way back over a mile away. D. They are busy gathering honey in a heavy rain. 50. According the passage, touching bees may be A. great B. safe C. interesting D. dangerous 第二部分 (非选择题共50分) 注意事项: 第二部分共2页,用0.5毫米黑色墨水签字笔打在答题卡上,不能打在试卷上。 三、完成对话(共5个小题,每小题一分满分5分) 根据对话内容在美国空缺处填入一个适当的词,使整段对话意思完整,请把该空缺处的词填写在答题卡上相应的位置上。(每空限填一词) A: Hi, Carol._ 51 was your school trip last weekend? B: It was great. A: Did you go to the zoo?. B: No. I didn't. I went to a farm. Look, here_ 52 my photos. A: Did you see any cows? B: Yes, I_ 53 . I saw quite a lot and milked a cow. A: Did you feed any chickens? B: Well, I saw some chickens._ 54 I didn't feed them. A: What else did you do? B: My friends and I went for a walk around the farm and chatted with a farmer. A: It sounds like you had_ 55 good time. B: Yes. You can go there if you are free. 四、短文填空(共10小题,每小题一分满分10分) 通读下面短文掌握其大意,然后从短文后面的括号里选出可以填入短文空格处的词,并将其该词的字母代号(不写出该词)填写在答题卡上的位置上。 There is a library in every school. The library is a great place to visit for help_ 56 school work, and for fun. You can go to your library, and there will always be someone there to help you find what_ 57 want. That person is a librarian. You can ask your librarian to help you find books about any subject that you are 58 in. Libraries have many books about everything from airplanes to giraffes. You also can_ 59 fiction, novels and many more. If you are having a hard time finding an answer 60 a question, ask your librarian to help you find_ 61 answer. Your librarian can help you find 62 in magazines, newspapers and articles, and on the computer. Libraries are also great places to go 63_you want a quiet place to read or study. They have areas with some 64 chairs where you can read a book. They also have tables and chains where you can work on school reports. Don't forget to visit your library, and remember to 65 your librarian for his or her help. (A. read B. soft C. the D. interested E. if F. you G. thank H. to I. information J. with) 五、阅读短文并回答问题(共5小题:每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,回答文后所给出的问题,并按要求将答案填写在答题卡相应的位置上。 Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17, 1706 in Boston. When he was 12, he began working at his brother's print shop, where he learned a lot about writing and printing. He even wrote some articles in the New England Courant. At the age of 17, he ran away from home and went to Philadelphia. He also took an active role in the community. In 1736,he set up a volunteer fire company and also became the postmaster of the city the next year. He traveled for five years starting from 1757 around Great Britain. He also made many more trips to France and Britain. He returned to America in 1787, where he served as a delegate (代表) to the Constitutional Convention. He played a strong role here as an elder statesman, who shared his world view ( 观点).He was very happy to see the United States become independent and take up the United States Constitution. Unfortunately, he died in 1790 at the age of 84, only three years after the Constitution was put into place. He was also famous - sill is, 200 some years after his death. In his life, he did as he said,“Honesty and diligence (勤勉) should be your eternal partner" . 66. Where was Benjamin Franklin born? 67. What did he learn at his brother's print shop? 68. How old was he as a postmaster? 69. How did he feel when the United States became independent? 70. What can we learn from his word? 六、书面表达(共1题,满分25分) 假如你是李华,即将进人高中学习。在新的学习环境中,让别人了解你尤为重要。请你根据以下要点提示,以“My self-introduction”为题,用英语写篇 介绍你个人情况的短文。 要点提示: 1.年龄,外貌,家庭等; 2.诚实,善良,友好等; 3.绘画,锻炼,阅读等; 4.学习努力,成绩优秀,擅长英语等; 5.其他,.... 要求: 1.词数110词左右(短文首向已给出,不计入总词数); 2.要点提示均须涉及,可适当增加内容; 3.不用真实姓名、校名、地名。 参考词语: parent, honest, take exercise, get good grades, be good at My self-introduction Hi, everybody. I'm Li Hua. 泸州市二0一九年高中阶段学校招生考试英语 参考答案 1-5ACDBD 6-10ABCAC 11-15ABDCB 16-20BADCD 21-25ABCBD 26-30DACBC 31-35DACDD 36-40DCBDA 41-45BCACD 46-50BCACD 51-55How are did but a 56-60JFDAH 61-65CIEBG 66.Boston. 67.Writing and printing. 68.He was 31 years old. He was very happy. 70.Honesty and diligence should be your eternal partner.

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  • ID:4-6457968 中考专区 二轮专题-------初中英语语态讲解

    初中英语/中考专区/二轮专题/词法/动词语态

    语态知识梳理 知识点1:被动语态的构成 一般式 进行式 完成式 现在时 am/is/are+p.p am/is/are+being+ p.p have/has+been + p.p 过去时 was/were+ p.p was/were+being+ p.p had +been + p.p 将来时 shall/will+be+p.p shall/will+have been+ p.p 注意:含有情态动词的谓语变化为被动语态时,由“情态动词(can, may must, have to等)+be +动词的-ed形式。含有“be going to , be to, used to, be about to”等结构的复合谓语变为被动语态时,其构成为“be going to (be to, used to, be about to)+ be +动词的-ed形式”构成。 知识点2:几种特殊形式的被动语态的构成 1.短语动词的被动语态 通常只有及物动词才有被动语态,但有些短语动词相当于及物动词,可以有被动语态,但短语动词是一个不可分隔的整体,变为被动语态时不可去掉构成短语动词的介词或副词。 Have you sent for the doctor?→Has the doctor been sent for? 注意:主动结构的谓语动词为“不及物动词+名词+介词”构成的及物的短语动词时,通常把它看成一个整体。但也可将这类短语动词本身的名词用作主语,构成被动语态,尤其是在名词前有定语修饰时。 Good care must be taken of the babies particularly while they are ill. You should pay more attention to your pronunciation.→More attention should be paid to your pronunciation. By the time he was twelve, Edison had begun to make a living by himself. When we got to the cinema, the film had already begun. 2.Get型被动语态 被动语态的基本形式是由“be+及物动词的过去分词”构成的。但在现代英语中大量地出现了由“get+及物动词的过去分词”构成的被动语态,这叫get-型被动语态。get-型被动语态中的过去分词数量有限,通常为单个的动词或比较简单的动词短语。 (1)get+及物动词的过去分词 get常同marry, beat, break, damage, tear, strike, hurt, paint, invite, repair, dress, pay, wound等动词的-ed形式连用,构成被动语态。这种结构一般指动作的结果而非动作本身,常指“最后终于,突然发生”等意义。 Be careful when you cross this very busy street.If not,you may get run over by a car. He got wounded in the battle. The boy got hurt on his way home from work. (2)get-型被动语态一般不宜用在含有双宾语的结构中,也不宜与see, hear, watch, listen to等感官动词构成被动语态。 The old man was offered a large sum of money. (正) The old man got offered a large sum of money. ( 误) (3)get-型被动语态有时有言外之意或具有感情色彩 He got taught a lesson.(有“活该”之意) How did the window get closed.(有“不该关上”之意) (4)get-型被动语态有时表示开始进入某种状态,而be+动词的-ed形式只表示存在的状态。 She got tired.(有开始感到疲劳的含义) She was tired. (只表示“她累了”) 知识点3:主动形式表被动含义 1. 是及物又是不及物的动词。 如read, write, sell, open, shut, begin, wash, wear, cut, lock, play, pack, strike, split, act, draw, iron, dry, eat heat, clean等;此类动词常接副词作状语(有些可以不加)。 Books of this kind sell well. The door won't shut. 2. 系动词 系动词look, feel, taste, sound, smell, prove, seem, appear,remain等。此类动词常接形容词作表语。 -Do you like the material? -Yes, it feels very soft. The dish tastes good. 3. need等词后面常接主动的-ing分词形式 need, want, require,stand, take, won’t bear, repay, deserve等词后面常接主动的-ing分词形式,表示被动意义。在这种情况下,句子的主语在逻辑上是-ing分词的宾语。 Your hair needs cutting. The room wants cleaning everyday. 4. 某些表语的形容词后,用不定式主动表示被动 当动词不定式作表语形容词(如形容词easy, difficult, hard等)的状语,又与句子的主语构成动宾关系时,动词不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。 This question is difficult to answer. The room is comfortable to live in. 5. 某些作宾补的形容词后,用不定式主动表示被动 当动词不定式作宾补形容词(如形容词easy, difficult, hard等)的状语,又与句子的宾语构成动宾关系时,动词不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。 We find the man hard to get along with. I think English easy to learn. 6. 不定式作定语 不定式作定语与前面的名词或代词有动宾关系时,动词不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。 I have a lot of work to do this week. Have you got anything to say at the meeting? 7. be worth doing结构 在be worth doing结构中,-ing分词形式表示被动含义。句子的主语在逻辑上是-ing分词的宾语。 -What do you think of the book? -Oh, excellent. It's worth reading a second time. The film is worth seeing. Step2: 典例精讲- -I hear you ________ in a pub. what’s it like? -Well, it’s very hard work and I’m always tired, but I don’t mind. A.are working B.will work C.were working D.will be working 【答案】 A 【考点】 考查动词的时态。 【解析】 句意为“——我听说你在酒吧里上班,这份工作怎么样?——咳,这是份辛苦活,老感到累,不过我不介意。”对话所用的现在时表明现在还在酒吧里上班,用现在进行时描述现阶段长期重复的一个动作。故选A。 -Have you finished reading Jane Eyre? -No, I ________ my homework all day yesterday. A. was doing B. would do C. has done D. do 【答案】 A 【考点】 此题考查时态, 【解析】 句意:—你读完了Jane Eyre吗? —没有,我昨天一直做作业。可以根据句意解答,也可以使用排除法。A表示一段时间内持续进行且未完成的动作使用进行时。题干中有all day yesterday时间提示为过去,应该选择与过去相关的时态,排除D。B为过去将来时不符合题意,C过去完成时是过去的过去,使用过去完成时题目中需要有一般过去时,题干中没有一般过去时因此也排除。 Every few years, the coal workers ________ their lungs X-rayed to ensure their health. A. are having B. have C. have had D. had had 【答案】 B 【考点】 本题考查时态。 【解析】 根据时间状语every few years,可判断本句应为一般现在时,因此答案选B。 Edward, you play so well. But I ________ you played the piano. A. didn’t know B. hadn’t known C. don’t know D. haven’t known 【答案】 A 【考点】 考查动词时态。 【解析】 前句说。Edward,你(钢琴)弹得这么好,可见现在已经知道 “你弹钢琴”,不知道是在过去,而不是现在,因此句子用一般过去时。 The population of Jiangsu ________ to more than twice what it was in 1949. The figure is now approaching 74 million. A. has grown B. have grown C. grew D. are growing 【答案】 A 【考点】 考查主谓一致和时态。 【解析】 population是集合名词,或集体名词,即看成一个整体,所以谓语动词用单数形式。句子说的是江苏现在的人口数量和以及增长,用完成时表示现在的状态。 If their marketing plans succeed, they________their sales by 20 percent.? A.will increase B.have been increasing?C.have increased D.would be increasing 【答案】 A 【考点】 本题考查时态。 【解析】 句意为:如果他们的市场运作计划成功,那么他们的销售将会增加百分之二十。条件状语从句中用一般现在时表将来,主句必须用一般将来时。 I know a little bit about Italy as my wife and I ________ there several years ago. A.are going B.had been? C.went D.have been 【答案】 C 【考点】 考查时态。 【解析】 句中ago是一般过去时的标志。 -Tom, you didn’t come to the party last night?? - I ________, but I suddenly remembered I had homework to do.? A.had to B.didn’t? C.was going to D.wouldn’t 【答案】 C 【考点】 考查时态。 【解析】 have to不得不,be going to do sth.表示按计划或安排要做某事。根据but可知,此处应选择C项。

    • 2019-11-16
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  • ID:4-6457780 中考专区二轮专题特殊句式+练习(Word版含答案)

    初中英语/中考专区/二轮专题/句法/句类综合

    特殊句式 英语句子的自然语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后,即“主语+谓语”或“名词+动词”。所谓特殊句式,就是句 子的结构与平常的结构组成存在着区别和不同。主要包括省略句、倒装句和强调句。在初中阶段我们学习的特特 殊句式主要有:祈使句、There be 句型,感叹句和反意疑问句,so 和 neither 引导的简短倒装句。 祈使句 祈使句主要指表示请求、命令、禁止、劝告或建议等带有祈使语气的句子,祈使句并非无主语, 而是主语 you 因为说话双方都知道常省去。因此,从某种意义上也可以认为祈使句是省略句的一种,为了强调动词,把动词置 于句首,不惜“牺牲”主语,从本质上也符合英语句式是“主语+谓语”和重心前置的思维逻辑,只不过在运用时综合考虑了一下。祈使句一般没有时态的变化,也不能与情态动词连用。 Keepoffthegrass!勿踩草地! Puttheboxesinthesmallroom.把那些盒子放到那个小房间里。祈使句的肯定句式 祈使句的肯定句式一般分为以下三种类型: 行为动词原形+其它成分。例如: Make sentences after the model.根据例句造句。 Be动词+其它成分(形容词、名词或介词短语等)。例如: Be careful when crossing the street.过马路时要小心。 Let+宾语+动词原形+其它成分。例如: Lethimgobacknow.让他现在回去吧。 祈使句的否定句式 祈使句的否定句式,通常情况下在句首加上 Don’t 或 Never,一般分为以下四种类型: 1.在祈使句的肯定句式前加 Don’t,构成 Don’t+行为动词原形+其它成分。例如: Don't say that again!别再那样说了! 在Be动词引起的肯定祈使句前加Don't,构成Don'tbe+其它成分(形容词、名词或介词短语等)。例如: Don'tbecareless.不要粗心。 注意:在这种句型中be不能省略;否定副词not不可置于be 之后。 Let引起的祈使句的否定形式有两种: Let开头的祈使句,如果后面跟第一、第三人称名词或代词的宾格,可在 Let前加 Don't,也可在 Let后宾格的名词或代词后面加 not。(2)如果以 Let's 开头的祈使句,必须在 Let's后加 not。例如: Don't let me go with her tomorrow. =Let me not go withhertomorrow. 不要让我明天跟她一起去。 Let's not tell her the truth whenever wemeether. 无论什么时候我们碰到她,都不要告诉她真相。 在公共场合的提示语中,否定祈使句常用 No+名词/V-ing形式结构,表示禁止做某事。例如: NO PHOTOS!禁止拍照! 祈使句与陈述句的并列使用 祈使句后接陈述句时,须用连接词连接。如果祈使句与陈述句表示的是一种顺承关系时,要用并列连词 and 来连接;如果祈使句与陈述句存在一种否定条件关系时,要用并列连词or来连接。例如: Leave it with me and I will see what Ican do. 把它留给我吧,我想想有没有办法。Hurry up, or we'llbelate. 快点,否则我们要迟到了。 祈使句的强调形式 祈使句的强调形式通常在肯定祈使句式前加上助动词 Do(Do在句中无意义)。例如: Doshutup!快住口! 运用祈使句的误区 祈使句往往容易与不定式、分词或条件状语从句相混淆,在平时的练习或测试中,如果稍不留神,就会出错。 这几年在中考题中频频出现,需引起大家的注意。因此,要认真审题,认真分析句子结构,并根据上下文语境, 作出正确判断。例如: your composition carefully, some spelling mistakes can beavoided. A.Havingchecked B.Check C. Ifyoucheck D. Tocheck 析:如果空白处选填 B(Check)项,则视为祈使句,但后一分句前没有并列连接词 and连接;如选 A或 D项(分词或不定式),句中逻辑主语 somespellingmistakes又不能执行这个动作,故均不符合句子结构。因此,只有 C 项(条件状语从句)符合句子结构及句意。 to smile at your life when you are in trouble, and you will soon be happyagain. A.Try B.Totry C.Trying D.Tried 析:后一分句前有并列连接词 and 连接两个分句,逗号前句子又为从属连词 when 连接的一个时间状语从句, 可推断出 when 前是一个完整的句子,但是前面句子缺谓语动词,B、C、D 选项均为非谓语动词,故均不符合句子结构。因此,只有 A 项符合句子结构及句意。 There be 句型 There be 是英语中常用句型, 意思是“有”,表示“人或事物的存在”。There 在此结构中是引导词,已经没有副词“那里”的含义。There be 后面的名词是句子的主语,属倒装结构。因此要表达“某个地方或某个时间存在什么事物或人”的时候常用这一句型。 构成及用法:结构为 There be(is,are,was, were )+名词+地点状语。例如: There are fifty-two students inourclass. There is a pencil in my pencil-case. There was an old house by the river five yearsago. 主谓一致问题 当动词 be后所接的名词是单数可数名词或不可数名词时,be应该取单数 is;当其后所接的名词是复数的可数名词时,be用复数 are。 There'samanatthedoor.门口有个人。 Thereissome applejuiceinthebottle.瓶子里有些苹果汁。Therearesome strangersinthe street.大街上有一些陌生人。 如果 Therebe后面是几个并列名词做主语时,动词 be 的形式和最靠近它的那个名词保持数的一致。 There is an ashtray and two bottles on the shelf. 架子上有一只烟灰缸和两个瓶子。 There are two bottles and an ashtray on the shelf. 架子上有两个瓶子和一个烟灰缸。否定句 There be 句型否定句式的构成和含有 be 动词的其它句型一样,在 be 后加上“not”。也可用“no”来表示。即: no+ n.(名词)= not a\an\any+ n.(名词)。注意:no+ n.(可数名词单数)= not a\an+ n.(可数名词单数); no+ n.(可数名词复数)= not any+ n.(可数名词复数);no+ n.(不可数名词)= not any+ n.(不可数名词)。 There is an orange in her bag.→There isn’t an orange in her bag.→There is no orange in her bag. There are some oranges in her bag.→There aren’t any oranges in her bag.→There are no oranges in her bag. There is some juice in the bottle.→There isn’t any juice in the bottle. →There is no juice in the bottle. 关于时态 Therebe句型中动词 be可以有一般现在时、一般过去时、将来时和完成时。 There is an apple onthe table. There were fabulous wildflowers in the hills last spring. There will be a finedaytomorrow. There have been several private schools in our area thisyear. Therebe句型可以和各种助动词、情态动词连用。 There may be a cigarette inthatbox. There must be some cakes on thetable. Therebe句型也可以和这样一些的谓语动词连用:begoingto、seemto、appearto、usedto、belikelyto、happento …. There is going to be ameetingtonight. There is likely to be astorm. therebe结构中除可以用 be外,还可以用其它动词。例如: There came a scentoflime-blossom. Once upon a time there lived a king inChina. There be 结构和 have 的区别与联系 区别点:therebe意为存在,强调某地有某物,不表示所属关系;have表示所有关系,强调某人或某地有某物如: There are some trees in front ofthe house. Tom has many friends inChina. 相同点:在表示结构上的含有时,既可以用therebe句型,也可以用have(has)来表示。如: 中国有许多长河。TherearemanylongriversinChina. China has many longrivers. 三月份有多少天? How many days are thereinMarch? How many days hasMarch? 感叹句 用来表达较为强烈的情感如惊讶、喜悦等的句子。感叹句的构成方法有三种: 陈述句,疑问句可构成感叹句。例如:Itsoundsgreat! 听起来真棒! Isn’titinteresting! 真是有趣极了! 单词或短语都可构成感叹句(省去其它句子成分)如:Oh,mygold!我的天哪! Help!救命! 常用 What或 How来引导,位于句首放在它们与所修饰的词前面,其他部分用陈述句语序。 由 what 引导的感叹句是用来强调修饰名词的,名词前可有其他的定语成分(即形容词或冠词)。单数可数名词前要加不定冠词 a / an,复数可数名词或不可数名词前不用冠词。在使用过程中,常用的句型有: What+a/an+adj.+可数名词单数+主语+谓语+其他成分!例如: What a strong boyheis! What an honest girl Maryis! What+adj.+可数名词复数/不可数名词+主语+谓语+其他成分!例如: What brave soldierstheyare! What fine weather it istoday! 由 how 引导的感叹句是用来强调修饰形容词或副词的。修饰形容词时,句中的谓语动词常用用系动词,如am, is 等;修饰副词时,则句中的谓语动词常用行为动词,如 fly, run 等。在使用过程中,常用的句型有: 1.How + adj.+ a / an +名词+主语+谓语+其他成分!例如: How exciting a football matchit is! How kind an old man heis! 2.How + adj./adv.+ 主语+谓语+其他成分!例如: How tall YaoMingis! How fast the dragonflyflies! 解题技巧:1.确定是考察感叹句后,先省略其主语和谓语,只需观察省略句子主语和谓语后的部分。 观察题干或选项中有无冠词 a/an(可数名词复数或不可数名词前不用冠词)。 无冠词时,观察句中有无名词,有名词用 what,无名词用 how 有冠词时,看冠词的位置,如果紧跟在 what或 how后,用 what.否则用 how。反意疑问句 反义疑问句即反义附加疑问句。它表示提问人的看法,没有把握,需要对方赞同。 附加疑问句由两部分组成:前一部分是一个陈述句,后一部分是一个简短的疑问句,两部分的人称时态应保持一致。(三个一致) 主要形式:陈述部分肯定式+疑问部分否定式;陈述部分否定式+疑问部分肯定式。(前肯后否,前否后肯)例: They work hard,don'tthey? Let's go to the supermarket,shallwe? You didn't go, didyou? 特殊情况 陈述部分有 never,seldom, hardly,few,little,barely, scarcely, nothing,none,rarely,no, not, no one,nobody, neither等否定意义的词汇时,后面的反意疑问句则为肯定形式: There’re few apples in the basket,arethere? He can hardly swim, canhe? 当陈述部分主语为 everyone,someone,anyone,noone等表示人的不定代词时,疑问部分的主语用 they或 he: Everyone in your family is a teacher, aren't they\isn'the? 当陈述部分的主语为 everything,something,anything.nothing等表示物的不定代词时,疑问部分的主语用 it: Something is wrong with your watch, isn'tit? 当陈述部分含有否定意思的词是 unhappy,dislike,unfriendly,等含有否定词缀的派生词,也就是有 un,dis-前缀、-less后缀等含词缀而意思否定的词,当肯定句处理,疑问部分用否定形式。如: He looksunhappy,doesn'the? The girl dislikes history,doesn'tshe? 当陈述部分有 less, fewer等词视为肯定词,疑问部分用否定形式。 There will be less pollution, won't there? 含有 think, believe,suppose,imagine,expect等动词后接宾语从句构成的主从复合句在构成反意疑问句时, 视情况不同有两种不同的构成方式。 当主句的主语为第一人称时,其后的简短问句应与从句相一致。例如: I expect our English teacher will be back this weekend, won'tshe/he? We suppose you have finished the project, haven't you? 注意:当这些动词后接的宾语从句的否定转移到主句时,其仍属否定句,故其后的简短问句应用肯定式, 例如:Idon't believe that he can translate this book, can he? We don't imagine the twins have arrived, have they? 当主句的主语为第二、三人称时,其后的简短问句则应与主句相一致。例如: Your sister supposes she needs no help, doesn't she? You thought they could have completed the project, didn't you? 陈述部分有 hadbetter,或其中的 had表示完成时态时,疑问句应用 hadn't等开头 You'd better get up early, hadn't you? 其他情况句中有 have 时疑问句应用 don't 等开头,如 have 表示“有”的时候,有两种形式:(have 表示有可用 do 或 have 来改写) -He has two sisters,doesn't he? =He has two sisters, hasn't he? -He doesn't have any sisters,does he? 当陈述部分是祈使句时,分两种情况:1)一般情况下用 willyou或 won'tyou。Give me a hand, willyou? 2)以 Let's(听者包括在内)开头的祈使句,前肯后可肯可否,疑问句必须用 shall we(shall 只用于第一人称); 只有以 Let us(听话人不被包括在"us"里面)或 Let me 开头的祈使句,问句才用 will you。 Let us know the time of your arrival,will you? Let's try again, shall we? Let me help you, will you? 当陈述部分有情态动词 must,问句有 3种情况: mustn't表示"禁止,不可,不必"时,附加问句通常要用 must. You mustn't stop your car here,mustyou? 你不能把车停在这地方,知道吗? (2)must表示"有必要"时,附加问句通常要用 needn't. They must finish the work today, needn'tthey? 他们今天要完成这项工作,是吗? (3)must be 用来表示对现在的情况进行推测时,问句通常要根据 must 后面的动词采用相应的形式。 He must be good at English, isn't he?他英语一定学得很好,是吗? so 和 neither 引导的简短倒装句 含义:表示前句所述(肯定或否定)情况也适用于另一主语. 结构:So/neither+系动词(助动词或情态动词)+另一主语. I enjoy reading the book and so doesmy wife. Jim can’t speak Japanese, neither can I. 注意:so +主语+系动词(助动词或情态动词)此句型的主语与前一句的主语相同,因而主谓不倒装。这种句型表示说话者对前句所提到的情况或事实表示赞同,其中 so 作“不错;确实如此”解。如: -It iscoldtoday. -Soitis -He studieshard. -So hedoes. 【课堂练习】 ( )1 I hear Yang Yan made an English speech at the graduation ceremony yesterday. -----_ ,and . A So she did ; sodid I B So did she ; soIdid C So she was ;soIwas D So was she ; so I was ( )2 Mary got good grades inschool. excited she is! AWhat BWhata CHow D Howa ( )3 kind and helpful to the people around us, and we will make the world a nicerplace. A.Be B.Being C.Tobe D.Been ( ) 4 E—mail is very popular today . People seldom write lettersnow, ? A did they B dothey C didn’t they D don’t they ( )5 Our hometown is more beautiful thanbefore, ? Aisn’tit Bisit Cdoesn’tit D doesit ( )6 Millions of people know about Susannow, ? ----- , she becomes well-known because of her success on Britain’s Got Talent. A do they;No B do they;Yes C don’t they;Yes D don’t they ; No ( ) 7 Don’t forget to put the book back on theshelf, ? Ado you B don’tyou Cwill you D won’t you ( ) 8 I don’t think he can drive acar, ? Adoyou B canhe Ccan’the D don’t you ( ) 9.She plays the pianoverywell, . A. so every one ofus does B. every one of usdoes C. so does every oneofus D. so do every one of us ( ) 10.You say he workshard, ,and . A. so he does; soyoudo B. so he does; sodoyou C. so does he; sodoyou D. so does he; so you do ( )11. pretty your dressis! AWhat BWhata C How D How a ( )12.—We are going to take part inRunningMan. — excitingnews! A.What B.What an C.How D. How an ( )13.— Dad, what do you think of the pictureIdrew? — ! It’s the nicest one that I have everseen. A.Whatbeautiful B.Howterrible C. Howwonderful D. What wonderful picture ( ) 14. fat sheeptheyare! A.What B.Whata C. How D. Howa ( )15.— useful advice you have given to me! Thank you somuch! A.Whata B.Whatan C.How D.What ( )16.There any rice inthebowl. A. are B.is C.isn’t D. aren’t ( )17.There not milk in the cup on the table. A.are,many B. are,much C.is,many D. is ,much ( )18.There many apples on the tree lastyear. havebeen B.were C.are D. is ( )19.There an apple and ten bananas in the basket. You can take any ofthem. A.are B.is C.has D. have ( )20. any flowers on both sides of thestreet? A.Isthere B.Are there C.Has D.Have 【课后强化巩固练习】 ( )1. fast the boyran! A.Howan B. How C.What D. What an ( )2. well yousing but badly hedances! A. How,how B.What,what C.How,what D. What, how ( )3. delicious the soup is! I’d like somemore. A.How B.Howan C.What D. What an ( )4. fools they were! They believed what the mansaid. A.How B.Howan C.What D. Whatan ( )5. foolish they were! They believed what the mansaid. A.How B.Howan C.What D. What an ( )6. difficult questions they are! I can’t answerthem. A.How B.Howan C.What D. What an ( )7. I miss my friendverymuch. I want to seeher! A.How B.Howan C.What D. What an ( )8. lovely weather we are having thesedays! A.How B.Howan C.What D. What an ( )9. beautiful your new dressis! A.How B.Howan C.What D. What an ( )10. interesting work it is to teachchildren! A. How B.Howan C.What D. What an ( )11. Linda ate nothingthismorning, ? A.didn’tshe B. wasshe C.didshe D. wasn’t she ( )12.There’shardly milk inthebottle, there? A.no,isn’t B.some,is C. little,isn’t D. any, is ( )13. He has never ridden ahorsebefore, ? A.doeshe B. hashe C.hasn’the D. doesn’t he ( )14. — He seldomcamehere, ? — Yessir. A.didn’the B.doeshe C.doesn’the D. did he ( )15. Everything seemsallright, ? A.doesit B.don’tthey C.won’t it D. doesn’t it ( )16. One can’t be toomodest,can ? A.one B. he C.it D. we ( )17. Neither you nor I ama artist, ? A. amI B.aren’twe C.arewe D. amn’t I ( )18. I don’t believe youareright, ? A.are you B.do you C.won’tyou D. do ( )19. She doesn’t think that Tom sings best intheclass, ? A. doesshe B.doesn’tshe C. doeshe D. doesn’t he ( )20.. There won’t be any concert thisSaturdayevening, ? A. will therenot B.will there C.isthere D. won’t 【课堂练习】 1--5 ACABA 6--10 CCBCB 11--15 CACAD 16-20 CDBBB 【课后强化巩固练习】 1--5 BAACA 6--10 CACAC 11--15 CDBDD 16-20 BCAAB

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  • ID:4-6457735 中考英语听力实用技巧

    初中英语/中考专区/二轮专题/题型专区/听说训练

    一.根据所听到的句子选图片 这个大题中的句子一般分成两种。一是直接描述画面,另一种是根据画面中的背景和相应的提示找出正确的图片。 解题技巧: 1.正确识别这些图片的主要意思,尽可能找出相似图片之间的不同之处 2.听懂句子的意思,要善于抓住听力材料中与图片吻合的关键词语 二.根据所听到的对话和问题,选出最恰当的答案。 主要考点:时间、地点、数字、比较、天气等 解题技巧 对问题中提出的5个“w”和1个“h”,即“who,what,when,where,why和how”,以及关键性的词语,如:“名词、动词、频度副词、数字、日期”等,甚至有时对数字还要做简单的运算。  可边听边速记某些重要的词(只要自己明白在平时听力训练中自己设定的符号即可),这些重要的词包括人名、地名、时间、起因、经过和结果等。 三.听对话或短文,判断正误。 1.在听之前,要预先把进行判断的句子按顺序通读一遍,先大概明白人物、事件、时间、地点等一系列信息. 2.在听的过程中,只要按着题目顺序逐个进行“是”或“否”的判断即可。如果一时有一句没有听懂,要学会随机应变,把听懂的先做,第二次听的时候,再补上先前遗漏的题目。还有,不能主观臆断,如果所听材料中没有提及的内容,不能毫无理由的猜测。特别注意题目中如果出现一些词,如:always, never, all, only, sometimes…,在听之前就划出来,听的时候需要与文章内容进行比较后再判断正误。 例题: A. To teach the kids Chinese. B. To teach the kids English. C. To teach the kids singing. 听力原文: W1: I’d like to help the kids after school, but I don’t know what to do. Can you help me Mrs Smith? W2: Well, Cathy, you are good at singing. Why not teach thekids singing? W1: But I’d like to help them with their study. W2: Then you can help them with their English. Don’t forget you do very well in English. Q: What would Cathy like to do to help the kids? 易失误考点 1.说话人的语气态度. 2.有假信息干扰 3.需要计算 4.同义词 5.隐含信息,需要推断 易失误考点: 1.说话人的语气态度. W: Are you happy after you finished your exam? M: Happy? You should see my marks before you said that. Q: What did he think of his exam? 练习: A.Very good. B. Not bad. C. Terrible. 2. 有假信息干扰 例题: Which might the woman prefer? Tea with sugar B. Tea with milk C. Tea with nothing in it. 听力原稿: M: I’m afraid we haven’t got any milk. I’m very sorry. W: It doesn’t matter. I sometimes drink tea without milk. 练习:A. She has no hobby. B. She likes photography. C. She collects shells. 3.需要计算(注意:half, total, quarter, double) 例题:A. for 4 days B. for 3 days. C. for 2 days. 听力原稿: W: They came here the day before yesterday, didn’t they? M: No, they got here four days ago, and left yesterday. Q: How long have they been in the city? 练习题: A. 30 yuan B. 60 yuan C. 120 yuan. 4. 同义词: eg.look like – take after – look the same as,prefer – like … better,instead of – no ,do…well--be good at等 例题: A. Nobody B. Her father C. Her mother 听力原文: M: Is that girl Mrs Brown’s daughter? W: Yes. How do you know that? M: She looks quite the same as her mother. Q: Who does the girl take after? 练习题: A. By plane B. By ship C. Take a train. 5. 隐含信息,需要推断 例题: A. It’s rainy B. It’s sunny and hot C. It’s fine. 听力原文: W: What’s the weather like? M: According to the weather report, the rain will stop in two days, It will be sunny and hot. Q: What’s the weather like now? 练习题: A. They are friends. B. They are classmates. C. They are colleagues 四.听对话或短文,完成句子。 这个题型既考查听的能力,又考查单词的拼写能力。 1.审题很重要,要在听之前理解句子的内容,由此推断文章的主旨; 2.要研究句子中有哪些项目,各缺少什么内容。在听录音时,就可以带着明确的任务去捕捉所需要的信息。在做的时候一定要仔细,注意单词的拼写与大小写。 做此类题型容易犯的错误有常见人名、地名的拼写;数字中“十几”和“几十”的分辨;数字在不同场合的不同表达方式,如1998,“one thousand nine hundred and ninety-eight”表示一个数量,“nineteen ninety-eight”表示年份;对于名词的单复数,规则动词的过去式(-ed),可以根据已经学过的语法知识来判断。 做完之后一定要检查 格式统一:动词不定式,动名词,动词过去式 2)语法精确:名词单复数,动词第三人称单数.形容词和副词的等 )同音和近音:如see\sea;forty\fourteen 小贴士:4个关键 1.带着问题听,带着预测去搜索答案,即有目的地“听”。这是中考听力测试中能否得到高分乃至满分的关键,它使考生由被动转为主动,打一场有准备的仗。听力答题的良好发挥,也将帮助考生更镇静、沉着,以饱满的情绪进行下面的答题. 2.如果遇到有的单词没听清和有的句子没听懂时,应冷静思考,根据上下文的内容和说话的语气,进行判断并选出正确的答案,切忌停留在某个单词或句子那里,费时思考,影响听下面的内容。这样会影响整个听力测试的成绩。 3.在听短文时,既要听懂全文,又要对全文正确理确,选择的答案或填写的单词,既要符合短文的意思,又要符合语法的要求。 4.要注意听名词是否加-s或es,过去式或过去分词是否加-ed等,因为它们既很难听清楚,又对答题起着非常重要的作用。 短文正误做题步骤 听 力 3. T/F题 1:速看题目,了解文意; 2:预先判断,划出可疑; 3:重点倾听,火眼金睛。 哪些句子错误几率大? 疑点1:非常绝对的词 everyday、 everybody must be、 can’t be、 only、 all、 never等; 疑点2:数字:年龄、日期、数量; 疑点3:时间、地点状语; 疑点4:完全否定句; 疑点5:双宾语的第二个宾语 ; 疑点6:限定语(教学备注:一些形容词、介词短语或者定语从句修饰某个名词,这些限定语有可能错误。); 疑点7:and连接>两个词 (教学备注:此为有很多词并列的时候,有可能不属于一类、或者原文没有出现。); 疑点8:句子本身就是表达一个错误的说法; 哪些句子正确率大? 1:表示大约的词most、some、many、may等; 2:表示本身就是一句描述正确规律、常识的句子。 听写 !! 听力技巧总结

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  • ID:4-6457703 2019初中英语各个年级语法知识点强化资料(10份打包)

    初中英语/中考专区/中考其它

    ??形容词的比较级和最高级  一、比较级的定义:大多数的形容词都有三个级别:原级、比较级、最高级。其中比较级表示“更……”,用于两者之间的比较,用来说明“前者比后者更……”,比较级前面一般用much, even, a little修饰,其中even, much 只能修饰比较级。 二、比较级的构成: (1)规则变化: ①单音节和部分双音节的形容词一般在词尾加-er Eg: calm---calmer? ? tall---taller? ?smart---smarter ②以字母e结尾的直接在词尾加-rEg: nice---nicer? ? fine---finer? ?large---larger ③以“辅音+y 结尾的词,变y为 i,再加-er”Eg: early---earlier? ?happy---happier? ?busy---busier ④以重读闭音节的单个辅音字母结尾的词,双写辅音字母,再加-erEg: big---bigger? ?thin---thinner? ?hot---hotter ⑤多音节或部分双音节的形容词在原级前面加moreEg: popular---more popular? ?important---more important (2)不规则变化:少数形容词的比较级变化是不规则的: good→better→best well→better→bestbad→worse→worstill→worse→worst old→older/elder→oldest/eldest many/much→more→most little→less→least far →further/farther→ furthest/farthest  三、比较级的用法:   (一)当两个人或事物(A和B)进行比较时,我们需要用到形容词(副词)的原级或者比较级   1.表达“A和B一样”,用as…as的结构。 公式: A+be动词+as+形容词原级+as…+B;A+实义动词+as+副词原级+as…+B Eg:I am as tall as you.我和你一样高。 He runs as fast as I. 他跑得和我一样快。   2.表达“A不如B”用not as…as的结构。 公式:??A+be动词的否定形式+as+形容词原级+as…+B;A+助词的否定形式+动词+as+形容词原级+as…+B Eg:I am not as tall as you.我没有你高。He doesn’t run as fast as I. 他没有我跑得快。 3.表达“A大于B”用“比较级+than”的结构。 公式:??A+be动词+形容词比较级+than+B…; A+实义动词+副词比较级+than+B… Eg:I am taller than you.我比你高。 He runs faster than I. 他跑得比我快。   (二)关于形容词、副词比较级的更多用法 1.比较级前面可以加上表示“优劣程度”的词或短语,是“更…”,“…得…”。常见much, a little, even, a lot, a great deal等。  Eg:He is much taller than I.他比我要高得多。I jump a little higher than he.我跳得比他高一点点。 想一想,这些词能修饰形容词或副词的原级吗?    2.比较级前面可以加上表示具体数量差别的结构,表示具体“大多少”,“小多少”,“长多少”,“短多少”等。 Eg:I am two years older than he.我比他大两岁。This building is 20 meters higher than that one.? ??   3.“比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越……”。   It is getting warmer and warmer.天气越来越暖和。He is running faster and faster.他跑得越来越快。 0ur country is becoming more and more beautiful.我们祖国越来越美了。   4.“the more…, the more…”表示“越……,就越……”,  The more,the better.多多益善。 The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you will make.你越细心,犯错就越少。   5.“the more…of the two…”表示“两个当中较。。。的一个”   ?The taller of the two boys is my brother.  四、当三个或三个以上的人或事物进行比较时,我们需要用到形容词(副词)的最高级  1.表达“…是…中最…的”,用“the+形容词(副词)的最高级”的结构。后面可以加上表示范围的介词短语或从句。  公式:主语+be动词+the +形容词最高级+(名词)+表示范围的介词短语或从句 ? ?主语+实义动词+(the) +形容词最高级+表示范围的介词短语或从句  ?Eg:He is the tallest (student) in our class.He jumps the highest of the three boys.This is the best book that I have ever read. 2.表示“最…的…中一个”,用“one of +the +最高级+复数名词”的结构来表达。   ?Eg:He is one of the best students in our class.他是我们班最好的学生之一。   ?This is one of the most beautiful flowers in the garden.这是花园里最漂亮的花之。   注意:(一) 形容词的最高级前面有定冠词the , 而副词的最高级前面定冠词the可以省略。但在形容词最高级前有物主代词时,不能要定冠词the.   (二)常见的用来表示范围的介词有in, of, among   五、运用形容词、副词比较级应当注意的问题:   (一)、按语法规则,than后面的人称代词应当用主格,但口语当中有时会用宾格代替主格。   ? ??Eg:He is more careful than I (me).   (二)、只有同类的事物才能比较   ? ?Eg:Her bag is bigger than mine. 不能说 Her bag is bigger than I.   ?The weather of Kunming is much better than that of Shenyang.   ?不能说The weather of Kunming is much better than Shenyang. 注意: (1)形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 例句: The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. (2) 形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 二、形容词、副词的比较级和最高级的用法 1.“A + be +形容词比较级 + than + B” 意思为“A比B更……”。 如:This tree is taller than that one. 这棵树比那棵树高。 注意: 在含有连词than的比较级中,前后的比较对象必须是同一范畴,即同类事物之间的比较。 ②be+...year(s) older than I am two years older than him 2.“比较级 + and + 比较级”或“more and more +原级”表示“越来越……” 如:It is getting warmer and warmer when spring comes. 春天来了,天气变得越来越暖和了。 The wind becomes heavier and heavier. 风变得越来越大。 Our town is becoming more and more beautiful. 我们的学校变得越来越美丽。 3.在含有or的选择疑问句中,如果有两者供选择,前面的形容词要用比较级形式。 如:Who is taller,Tim or Tom? 谁更高,Tim还是Tom? 4. “the +比较级……, the+比较级”,表示“越……越……”。 The more money you make, the more you spend.钱你赚得越多,花得越多。 The sooner,the better. 越快越好。 5. 表示倍数的比较级用法: ①. A is …times the size /height/length/width of B. 如:The new building is three times the height of the old one. 这座新楼比那座旧楼高三倍。(新楼是旧楼的四倍高) ②. A is …times as big /high/long/wide/large as B. 如:Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大。(亚洲比欧洲大三倍) ③. A is …times larger /higher/longer/wider than B. 如:Our school is twice bigger than yours. 我们学校比你们学校大两倍。 6.形容词、副词的最高级形式主要用来表示三者或三者以上人或事物的比较,表示“最……”的意思。 句子中有表示范围的词或短语。如:of the three, in our class等等。 如:Of the three, he is the most hard-working.He is the tallest in our class. 7."否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构表示最高级含义。 Nothing is so easy as this. =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing. 8. 比较级与最高级的转换: 比较级+than+any other+单数名词 Mike is the tallest in his class. Mike is taller than any other student in his class 7.修饰比较级和最高级的词 1)可修饰比较级的词a bit, a little, much, a lot, even 注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 (错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. (对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers. 2)下列词可修饰最高级:by far(非常,远远超过,远比), far, much, mostly, almost。 This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 注意: a. very可修饰最高级,用于形容词最高级前,以加强语气(完全地,真正地) This is the very best. b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。 Africa is the second largest continent. 8.要避免重复使用比较级。 (错) He is more cleverer than his brother. (对) He is more clever than his brother. (对) He is cleverer than his brothe 9.要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 (错) China is larger that any country in Asia. (对) China is larger than any other country in Asia. 10.要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out. 11.要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。 比较:Which is larger, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters. 形容词副词比较级和最高级专练 用所给词的正确形式填空: 1.He ran __________ than all the others. He ran ___________ of all.? ( fast ) 2.?James played as __________ as you. Mary played ___________of all. ( well ) 3.?She waited ____________ than she usually did. ( long ) 4.?I walked ___________ than the rest. I walked ___________ of all. ( far ) 5.My friend came ____________ than Pual and Mike. ( late ) 6.Among the three boys he works ____________. ( hard ) 7.Bob left school __________ in his class yesterday. ( late ) 8.He swims as __________ as I do. ( badly ) 9.Who did ___________ in the 100-metre race, Jim or Tim? ( badly ) 10. Both Li Ming and Li Hong sang __________, but I sang ___________ of all. ( badly ) 11. Peter is as ___________ as Tom. Benny is _________ than Tom. David is __________ of all. ( fat ) 12. Li Li found _____________ mushrooms than I did. ( many ) 13. The elephant is ____________ than any other animals. ( big ) 14. Man is ____________ than animals. ( much clever ) 15. Lesson Two is a bit ____________ than Lesson One. ( easy ) 16. I’m ___________ boy under the sun. ( happy ) 17. Today is ____________ than yesterday. ( hot ) 18. An elephant is ___________ than a tiger. It is ___________ animal on land. ( big ) 19. Mr. Li is ___________ than your uncle. ( thin ) 20. Which book is _____________, yours or mine? ( thick ) 21. This park is much ___________ than that one. ( beautiful ) 22. The first book is more useful than the second one. The second book is __________ than the first one. ( useful ) 23. Allan is ___________ of the three boys. ( strong ) 24. His marks are ___________ than his friend’s ( bad ) 25. It is ___________ to do this maths problem than to do that one.? ( easy ) 26. My house is ____________ to the farm than yours. ( far ) 27. My work is more important than yours. Your work is ____________ than mine. ( important ) 28. Climbing this hill is _____________. Climbing that hill is ____________. Climbing Mt. Everest is ___________ of all.?( dangerous ) 29. Mt. Everest is _________ than the Mont-Blanc. ( high ) 30. My mother drives very carefully. She is a _________ driver than my father. ( careful ). 31. Of the two girls, I find Lucy the _______ (clever). 32. Gold(黄金) is __________ (little) useful than iron(铁). 33. My sister is two years ___________ (old ) than I. 34. John’s parents have four daughters, and she is the _________ (young) child. 35. The _________ (cheap) bags are the not usually the best ones. 36. The short one is by far ___________ expensive of the five. 37. The boy is not so __________ (interesting) as his brother. 38. Dick sings _________ (well), she sings ________(well) than John, but Mary sings_______(well) in her class. 39. She will be much __________ (happy) in her mew house. 40. This dress is __________ that.(twice, as…as…, expensive) 基础训练写出下列单词的比较级和最高级级 1.形容词或副词比较级直接加er或r, 最高级直接加est或st 原形 比较级 最高级 原形 比较级 最高级 Old young light tall short long fast slow high low nice late wide large blue cold clever 2.形容词比较级双写末尾加er,最高级双写末尾加est big hot fat thin red wet sad 3.形容词结构是辅音字母+y的, 比较级变y为i再加er,最高级变y为i再加est heavy busy happy early dry noisy lucky easy 4.形容词或副词的比较级和最高级是完全不规则形式 good/ well bad / ill many / much few little far 5.单词为多音节词,比较级用more, 最高级用most构成。 beautiful popular carefully wonderful colourful interesting dangerous important clever quietly difficult delicious ( 1 ) 一般现在时 一、人称可以分为:第一人称,第二人称,第三人称 第一人称:我,我们 第二人称:你,你们 第三人称:除了我,我们,你,你们之外的所有人称 第三人称单数是指主语为第三人称,并且是单数。 二、动词的第三人称单数形式变化规律: 1. 直接在动词后加s 如 run-runs like-likes 2. 以“ch” “sh” “o” 等特殊字母发音结尾的动词,加es 如 teach-teaches 教书 watch-watches 观看 brush-brushes 刷牙 finish-finishes 完成 do-does 做 go-goes 走 3. 以辅音字母加“y” 结尾的动词要改“y” 为 “ i ” 加 es , 如 fly-flies 飞 try-tries 尝试 study-studies 学习 注:26 个 字母中有 5 个元音字母,分别为 a, e, i, o, u, 其余的21个字母就都是辅音字母。 4. 特殊情况:have-has 三、对于动词第三人称单数形式的做题步骤: 1. 找出句子主语,一般主语位于句子开头,表示人或物,为动作的发出者。 2. 判断该主语是否为第三人称单数。 3. 找出句子中的动词,即谓语,对其进行相关变形。 例题: She likes her mother very much. 她十分喜欢她的妈妈。 分析:“She” 是该句子的主语,并且是第三人称单数,所以后面的动词要用第三人称单数形式。 “like” 是句子中的动词,即谓语,它的第三人称单数形式变形为直接加s ,故为“likes”. 四、一般现在时的各种句型转换: 句子的三种基本形式:陈述句,疑问句,感叹句。 1. 陈述句分为肯定句和否定句。 肯定句表示肯定意思。否定句表示否定意思,句子中含有“not”,意思为“不”。 否定句:含有be动词的否定句和不含有be动词的否定句 ⑴ 对于含有be动词的否定句,我们先找到句子中的be动词,再在be动词后直接在not构成否定。即 主语+be动词+not+其他 注:一般现在时的be动词有三种:is, am, are 而be为动词原形。 ⑵对于不含be动词的否定句,我们要先借用助动词do或does,再在他们后面加not构成否定。do not=don’t does not=doesn’t 他们两个一定要放在动词前面构成否定。 注:当主语为第三人称单数时,我们要借用助动词does,而主语为非第三人称单数时,我们要借用助动词 do.另外构成否定句后,动词必须还原。 否定句变型的做题关键:判断句子是否含有be动词 例题:The boy is happy. ( 变为否定句) 分析:该句中含有be动词“is”,所以直接在“is”后面直接加“not”,即 The boy is not happy. 或 The boy isn’t happy. The man looks sad. ( 变为否定句) 该句中没有be动词,所以我们要借用助动词do 或does,因为该句主语“the man”是第三人称单数,所以用does 并在它的后面加not 即 doesn’t构成否定,放于动词“look”前面。即 The man doesn’t look sad. 注,动词“looks”务必还原为“look” 2. 疑问句分为一般疑问句和特殊疑问句 一般疑问句: 它是以be动词或者助动词do或does放于句子口头,并且首字母大写。 只有一般疑问句才能用“Yes” 和 “No”回答。 一般疑问句分类:含有be动词和不含be动词 ⑴含有be动词的,找到be动词放到句子开头,首字母大写,再加其他 ⑵不含be动词的,先找到句子主语,判断是否为第三人称单数,决定用do还是does. 然后将do或does放到句子开头,首字母大写。 注:写完后要在句子末尾加上问号“?”。 例题:The dog is big. (变一般疑问句) 分析:该句含有be动词“is”, 所以把“is”放到句子开头,首字母大写。 即 Is the dog big ? 肯定回答:Yes, it is. 否定回答:No, it isn’t. 注:it 代指 the dog Cats like fish. ( 变一般疑问句) 分析:该句不含be动词,所以我们要借用助动词do或does,因为该句主语为非第三人称单数,所以用助动词do,即 Do cats like fish? 肯定回答:Yes, they do. 否定回答:No, they don’t. 注:they 代指 cats 特殊疑问句: 构成:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句 特殊疑问词:Wh-词+how Wh-词有:where 问地点 when 问时间 what 问什么 why 问原因 who 问人 whose 问谁的,表所属关系 The boy plays football after school. ( 就划线部分提问) 分析:“after school”表示时间,所以我们要用“when”这个特殊疑问词提问, 即 When does the boy play school? 一般现在时用法专练: 一、用括号内动词的适当形式填空。 1. He often ________(have) dinner at home. 2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One. 3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday. 4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday. 5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup(世界杯)? 6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays? 7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day? 8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays. 9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening. 10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle. 11. Mike _______(like) cooking. 12. They _______(have) the same hobby. 13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully. 14. You always _______(do) your homework well. 15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed. 二、按照要求改写句子 1. Daniel watches(看) TV every evening.(改为否定句) ___________________________________________________ 2. I do my homework every day.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答) ________________________________________________________ 3. She likes milk.(改为一般疑问句,作肯定回答) ___________________________ 4. Amy likes playing computer games.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答) ___________________________________________________ 5. We go to school every morning.(改为否定句) _______________________________________________________ 6. He speaks(说) English very well.(改为否定句) ___________________________________________________ 7. I like taking photos in the park.(对划线部分提问) ________________________________________________________ 8. John comes from Canada.(对划线部分提问)(约翰来自加拿大。) ___________________________________________________ 9. She is always a good student.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答) ________________________________________________________ 三、改错(划出错误的地方,将正确的写在横线上) 1. Is your brother speak English? __________________ 2. Does he likes going fishing? __________________ 3. He likes play games after class. __________________ 4. Mr. Wu teachs us English. __________________ 5. She don’t do her homework on Sundays. _________________ PAGE 3 一般现在时基本用法介绍 一、一般现在时的功能: (一)表示经常性发生或反复发生习惯性的动作; 这种用法中经常用到: often经常, usually通常, always总是, every每个, sometimes有时, at…在几点钟,等做时间状语,也可以说,这是一个一般现在时语法的特征。 如:I usually get up at six.(表示经常性的事情。) He often has dinner at home.(经常性事情) They always go to school on foot.他们总是步行去上学。(“总是”表示经常性的事情) (二)表示事物或人物(主语)的现在的特征、状态,这种情形下,通常不带时间状语。如: She likes bread, but she doesn’t like pizza . Do you speak English? The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。 He works in a big company.他在一家大公司工作。 (三)表示客观现实、客观真理、科学事实、格言等; 如: The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。 There are four seasons in a year. The sun always rises in the east. Walls have ears. 隔墙有耳。 (四)表示将来。如: 1.表示按时间表拟定的或安排好的到了时间就会发生的事情或动作: The train arrives at 10:30 .There is still plenty of time. 火车10:30才会到达,还有足够多的时间。 She comes back next week .她下周就会回来的。 2.在时间状语从句中和条件状语从句中代替一般将来时. I will give you some candy when we meet next week. If he arrives ,please give me a phone call . 二、一般现在时构成: (一) 含有be动词的一般现在时; This is a red skirt. This is a T-shirt. It's red. These are trousers. They're black. The trousers and the T-shirt are nice. This is the way I read a book, on a Tuesday Morning. 小贴士: 1. Be 动词: 也就是: am is are 2. am 用在第一人称:“ I ”后面; 3. is的用法: (1) is 用在 he she it 等第三人称单数的主语后面;(三单:“不是你,不是我,只有一个!”一般现在时时才变化) 比如: He、 she、 it、 Li Ming 、Xiao Hong、this、 that以及this、that修饰的部分后面等等, 但是Li Ming and Xiao Hong这就不是第三人称单数了,而是复数应该用: are (2)不可数的名词做成分用到be动词时也要用:is 3. are 的用法: (1)第一人称复数:we ; (2)第二人称即:you(单数、复数的后面); (3)第三人称复数they后面、 以及 these ,those 或these ,those修饰的部分等,表示复数的地方 也就是说:记住am is应该用的地方就可以了,别的地方都是用的are。 This is a dress. This is这是 These are socks. These are这些是 These are new shorts. This is a new dress. These are his shoes? This is her skirt. The trousers are nice. The trousers and the T-shirt are nice. (二) 不含有be动词,即含有实意动词的一般现在 时; 这里只有一个需要记住的地方:就是第三人称单数的 后面,动词要加“-s”或“-es”,别的地方就只用动词原形就可以了。 (三单:“不是你,不是我,只有一个!”一般现在时时才变化) 举例: I like the shirt and the skirt. In the evening, I do my homework. In the evening, he does his homework. In the evening, she does her homework. In the evening, they do their homework. In the evening, Su Hai and Su Yang do their homework. In the evening, Su Yang do his homework. In the evening, the girls/ the boys do their homework. 二、一般现在时句子的变化:否定句、疑问句, 特殊疑问句,其中特殊疑问句放在后面介绍。 否定句:简单来说,就是表示否定的句子。 一般疑问句:一般疑问句是疑问句 (?http:?/??/?baike.baidu.com?/?view?/?46365.htm" \t "_blank?)的一种。它是只用yes(是)或no(否)来回答的句子。 特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词开头,对句中某一成分提问的句子叫特殊疑问句。 常用的疑问词 (?http:?/??/?baike.baidu.com?/?view?/?720086.htm" \t "_blank?)有:what 、who 、whose 、which 、when 、where 、how 、why等。 (1) 含有be动词的一般现在时的变化(含有情态 助动词)。情态助动词: can 1)否定句:主语+ be动词(情态动词) + not +其它。 如:He is a worker. He is not a worker. I can show you. I can’t show you . 2)一般疑问句:将be动词(情态动词)提到句子前面即可,即:Be (情态动词)+ 主语 + 其它。 He is a worker. He is not a worker. Is he not a worker? Yes , he is. No , he isn’t. I can show you. I can’t show you . Can you show me ? Yes ,I can. No , I can’t. I am a student . I am not a student . Are you a student? 肯定回答:Yes, I am. / 否定回答:No, I'm not. These are my friends . They are not my friends. Are they your friends ? Yes , they are . No ,they aren’t. (二)含有实意动词的句子 1.否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +壮语+动词原形(+其它、时间或地点壮语)。 这里需要记住几点: (1) 主语“三单”时,要用助动词doesn't; (2) 主语+ don't( doesn't)后面要加动词原形, 即:去掉三单时动词后面的(s或es)。 当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。 主语+doesn't/ I don't+动词原形(动词原来形状) 如: He doesn't often play. I don't like bread. 2.一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+壮语+动词原形+其它。 这里的“Do( Does )”只是为了帮助形成一般疑问句,没有实际意思! 这里需要注意几点: (1) 当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does替换do 构成一般疑问句。 (2) 主语三单时,句子中的动词要变为动词原形。 如:- Do you often play football? 肯定形式: Yes, I do. 否定形式: No, I don't. 如:- Does she go to work by bike? 肯定形式回答:Yes, she does. 否定回答: No, she doesn't. 3.小贴士:(这里是平时我们注意积累的地方,可以把我们平时的积累、感悟记在这里!) (1)“含有be动词的一般现在时…”这里句型的变化上边已经说过,但是并不局限于一般现在时!更为准确的表达是:含有be(am、is、 are、 was、 were)动词的句子,将其提到句首,句末打上问号即可; (2)一般疑问句的回答,开头往往是yes或no 。 也就是说,只要能看出是一般疑问句,那么它的回答开头往往就是yes或no ; (3)如遇第一人称,最好将其变成第二人称; 举例: I am a teacher. 否定句: I am not a teacher. 一般疑问句:Are you a teacher? 肯定回答:Yes ,I am . 否定回答:No ,I’m not . My father is a teacher. 否定句:My father is not a teacher. 一般疑问句:Is your father a teacher? 肯定回答:Yes ,he is . 否定回答:No ,he isn’t (4)在一般疑问句和否定句中,要表达“一些”时 ,some→any;但是,如果这个问句是用来表达 “建议、请求、邀请”等交际功能时 ,而且希望听到肯定回答时,应该用some. Is there any tea in the cup? Do you have any children? May I have some fish? Would you like some tea? Shall we buy some vegetables? Can I borrow some money from you? Why not have some bread? How about some orange juice? (三)特殊疑问句: 构成:疑问词+一般疑问句,同时注意去掉划线部分。 如:Where is my bike? How does your father go to work? I usually play football on Friday afternoon. When do you usually play football ? I usually play football on Friday afternoon. What do you usually do on Friday afternoon? Who is singing? Who often helps your mother? (四)一般现在时中,动词+s的变化规则即:动词三单的变化规律:(三单:“不是你,不是我,只有一个!”一般现在时时才变化) 动词第三人称单数词尾变化有三种形式。 1.一般动词在词尾加-s,-s在清辅音后读/s/,在浊辅音或元音后读/z/。如: help→helps know→knows get→gets read→reads 2.以字母s,x,ch,sh或有些以字母o结尾的动词加-es, guess→guesses??fix→fixes teach→teaches wash→washes brush--brushes 注意:go→goes?do→does 3.以字母y结尾的动词,有两种情形: 1)以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,先变y为i,再加-es, carry→carries,fly→flies 2)字母y前为元音字母,第三人称单数形式直接在动词后面加-s。 play→plays say→says 举例说明: 1. They are my parents.他们是我的父母; 否定句:They are not my parents. 他们不是我的父母。 一般疑问句:Are they your parents ? 他们是你的父母吗? 肯定回答:Yes ,they are . 否定回答:No ,they aren’t . 2. They are playing basketball over there. 他们正在那边玩足球; 否定句:They are not playing basketball over there. 一般疑问句:Are they playing basketball over there. 肯定回答:Yes ,they are .否定回答:No ,they aren’t . 3. The boy is drawing a picture now. 否定句:The boy is not drawing a picture now. 一般疑问句:Is the boy drawing a picture now. 肯定回答:Yes ,he is .否定回答: No ,he isn’t. 4. I am going to do my homework . 否定句:I am not going to do my homework . 一般疑问句:Are you going to do your homework ? 肯定回答:Yes ,I am . 否定回答: No , I’m not . 5. There is a bike behind the tree. 否定句:There isn't a bike behind the tree. 一般疑问句: Is there a bike behind the tree. Yes ,there is . No ,there isn’t . 6. There are some pencils in my pencil box. 否定句:There are not any pencils in my pencil box. 一般疑问句:Are there any pencils in your pencil box. 肯定回答:Yes ,there are . 否定回答:No ,there aren’t . 7. There are some fish in the water. (这里的fish是鱼的意思是可数名词所以用are ,只不过是名词的单复数形式相同而已。) 否定句:There are not any fish in the water. 一般疑问句:Are there any fish in the water? 肯定回答: Yes, there are . 否定回答: No, there aren't . 8. There is some water on Mars. (英[mɑ?z] )火星 否定句:There is not any water on Mars. 一般疑问句:Is there any water on Mars? (这里的water是不可数名词,所以用is .) 肯定回答: Yes, there is. 否定回答: No, there isn't. 9. Jenny can speak Enlish? 珍妮会说英语。 否定句:Jenny can’t speak English? Can Jenny speak English?。 肯定回答:Yes ,she can . /Yes , Jenny can . 否定回答:No ,she can’t ./No Jenny can’t . 10. I like English. He likes English. 否定句:I don’t like English. He doesn’t likes English. Do you like English? Does he like English? 肯定回答:Yes, I do. 否定回答: No, I don’t Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t. 11. I do my homework every day. 这里的单词do是行为、实意动词是“做什么”的意思。 否定句:I don’t my homework every day. 一般疑问句:Do you do your homework every day. “你每天做作业吗?”这里的前面的“Do”是助动词,后边的“do”是行为动词,是干什么,做什么的意思。 就像:“What do you usually do on sundays” Yes, I do . No, I don’t . 12. Li Ming usually waters the flowers every day. Li Ming doesn't usually water the flowers every day. Does Li Ming usually water the flowers everyday ? Yes, he does . No, he doesn’t . Li Ming usually waters the flowers every day. Where does Li Ming water the flowers ? Li Ming usually waters the flowers every day. What does Li Ming do everyday ? (将Ling Ming 换成:I、 We 、 They、 She、 He 、 Tom、Ling Ming’s mother、 Ling Ming’s parents 、 Xiao Hong and Ling Ming逐一做一遍练习) 13. Is this your cap, Danny? No! It's Kim's cap. 14. Are these your gloves? No. They're Li Tao's gloves. 15. Are these your gloves? Yes, they are. No, they aren't. 16. This is a dress. These are socks. Are these her shorts? Is this her dress? Yes, it is. No, it isn't. 17. These are new shorts. Are these her shorts? Yes, they are. No, they aren't. Are these his shorts? Yes, they are. No, they aren't. 18. Is this her dress? Yes, it is. No, it isn't. Is this his cap? Yes, it is. No, it isn't. Are these his shoes? Yes, they are. No, they aren't。 Is this her skirt? Yes, it is. No, it isn't. Are these her trousers ? Yes, they are. No, they aren't. 19. What is he/she wearing ? 他(她)穿着什么衣服? (1 )He is wearing a green sweater. He isn’t wearing a green sweater. Is he wearing a green sweater? Yes , he is . No, he isn’t . What is he wearing ? (2) She is wearing a green sweater. She isn’t wearing a green sweater. Is she wearing a green sweater? Yes , she is . No ,she isn’t . What is he wearing ? (3) I am wearing a green sweater. I am not wearing blue trousers. Are you wearing a green sweater ? Yes ,I am . No , I’m not . What are you wearing ? (4) I want to buy some books . I don’t want to buy some books . Do you want to buy any books . 肯定回答:Yes, I do. 否定回答: No, I don’t What do you want to buy ? (5) He wants to buy some books . He doesn't want to buy some books . Does he want to buy some books . Yes, he does . No, he doesn’t . What does he want to buy ? (换成:I、 We 、They、 She、 He 、Tom、Ling Ming’s mother、 Ling Ming’s parents 、 Xiao Hong and Ling Ming、Ling Ming逐一做一遍练习) (三单:“不是你,不是我,只有一个!”一般现在时时才变化) PAGE 7 七年级英语祈使句精讲及练习 一、祈使句(Imperative Sentence)   定义:用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子叫做祈使句,祈使句最常用于表达命令,因此在学校文法中也常称为命令句。   祈使句因对象(即主语)是第二人称,所以通常都省略。祈使句的动词都为一般现在时,句末则使用句号来表示结束。例:   Go and wash your hands.   (去洗你的手。——命令)   Be quiet, please.(Please be quiet.)   (请安静。——请求)   Be kind to our sister.   (对姊妹要和善。——劝告)   Watch your steps.   (走路小心。——警告)   Look out!Danger!   (小心!危险!——强烈警告,已如感叹句)   Keep off the grass.   (勿践草坪。——禁止)   No parking.   (禁止停车。——禁止)      祈使句也常把主语“You”表达出来,使对方听起来觉得柔和些,例如:   You go and tell him, Chris. (克立斯你去告诉他。) 二、相关口令 祈使句无主语, 主语you常省去; 动词原形谓语当, 句首加don't否定变; 朗读应当用降调, 句末常标感叹号。 三、表现形式 ●肯定结构: 1. Do型(即:动词原形(+宾语)+其它成分)。如:Please have a seat here. 请这边坐。   有的祈使句在意思明确的情况下,动词可省略。如:This way, please. = Go this way, please. 请这边走。 2. Be型(即:Be + 表语(名词或形容词)+其它成分)。如:Be a good boy! 要做一个好孩子! 3. Let型(即:Let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分)。如:Let me help you. 让我来帮你。 ●否定结构: 1. Do型和Be型的否定式都是在句首加don't构成。如:Don't forget me! 不要忘记我!   Don't be late for school! 上学不要迟到! 2. Let型的否定式有两种:“Don't + let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分”和“Let + 宾语 + not + 动词原形 + 其它成分”。如:Don't let him go. / Let him not go. 别让他走。 3. 有些可用no开头,用来表示禁止性的祈使句。如:No smoking! 禁止吸烟!No fishing! 禁止钓鱼! 练习: 将下列汉语翻译成英语。 1. 请照看好您的包。 ___________________. 2. 让我们去学校吧! ___________________! 3. 亲爱的,高兴点儿! ___________________! 4. 不要把书放这儿。 ___________________. 5. 不要让猫进来。 ___________________. Key: 1. Please look after your bag 2. Let's go to school 3. Be glad, dear 4. Don't put the book here 5. Don't let the cat come in / Let the cat not come in "let"带头的祈使句 由"let"带头的祈使句(Imperative Sentences)是个常见的动词句型,它的主要用法有下列三种:   1.表示“建议”。   这个句型里的"let"后头紧跟着一个第一人称的代词宾语,如:   (1) Let me try.   (2) Let's do it.   (3) Let me go and look for it.      这个句型语气委婉,比直接的祈使句客气。试比较(4)a和(4)b:   (4) a. Don't disturb him.   b. Let's not disturb him.   (a)是直接命令,语气强烈,不如(b)温柔悦耳。   2.表示“间接命令”或“愿望”。   这句型里的动词宾语是第三人称名词或代词,如:   (5) Let Robert take charge of the marketing department.   (6) Let her join our choir.   3.表示“警告”、“蔑视”、“威胁”等。   这种祈使句里的宾语也是第三人称为主。除了口气凶悍之外,有时还语带讽刺,如:   (7) Let him try and he will expose his inability to work on his own.   (8) Let the invaders come and our armed forces will wipe them out in no time.   用"let"的祈使句时,必须注意下列几点:   一、"let" 的否定句有二。如果宾语是第三人称用"Don't let....."(见例(9));如果宾语是第一人称,则用"Let......not" (见例(10)):   (9) Don't let this type of things happen again.   (10) It's raining now. Let's not go out until after the rain.   二、"Let"只适用于现在时态,可以有被动语态 (the passive voice),如:   (11) Let the recalcitrant criminals be sent to prison.   (12) Let all the dedicated capable staff be promoted.   三、"Let"后头除了是不带"to"的不定式动词 (The infinitive without"to")之外,还可以是某些适当的副词,如out, in, down, alone等:   (13) Let the puppy out.   (14) Open the windows and let the fresh air in.   (15) The room is too sunny. Let the blinds down.   (16) Let me alone, please.   四、用"Let's"时,把谈话者的对象包括在内;用"Let us"时,并不包括对方,如:   (17) Let's try it, shall we?   (18) Let us do it by ourselves, will you?   从(17)里的"shall we"和(18)里的"will you",不难知道前者包括听话人,后者并没有 现在进行时的讲解与练习。 (一)基本用法:(1)表示(说话瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。I’m?visiting?my?friends?now.? (2)也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作或存在的状态。 He?is?always?working?hard.他总是非常努力地工作。(表示赞扬) 谓语构成:be (am/ is/ are)+v-ing (动词的现在分词) 【注意】be动词要与主语的人称和数保持一致。如: I’m watching TV now. 我现在正在看电视。 They’re playing football. 他们正在踢足球。 现在分词的构成。 (1)一般情况下在动词词尾加ing。 go→going ask (问,询问)→asking look→looking (2)以不发音的e结尾的动词,去掉e加ing。 have →having take→taking make(做,制造)→making write(写)→writing (3)以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,双写最后一个字母,再加-ing。 get→getting sit(坐)→sitting put(放)→putting run(跑)→running swim→swimming begin(开始)→beginning shop→shopping (4) 特殊形式 lie-lying die-dying (四)现在进行时态的肯定式、否定式、疑问式及简略回答。 (1)肯定式:主语+be+v-ing +其他 He is running. 他正在跑。 The students are cleaning the room now . (2)否定式:主语+be+not+v-ing +其他 He is not running. The students aren’t cleaning the room now. 这些学生现在没有在打扫房间。 (3)一般问句:be动词提前。“Be+主语+v-ing+其他?” 肯定答语Yes,主语+be. 否定答语No,主语+be not. Is he running? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t. Are The students cleaning the room now? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. (4)特殊问句式: “疑问词+be +主语+v-ing+其他?” a. 对谓语动词进行提问的:What+be +主语+doing+其他? What is the old man doing under the tree? 那个老人正在树下面做什么呢? b. 对其他成份进行提问的,疑问词+一般疑问句? Where is the boy swimming? 那个男孩正在哪里游泳? Who is she waiting for? 她正在等谁呢? 五、 现在进行时与一般现在时的区别 (一)现在进行时表示动作的暂时性,而一般现在时表示动作的习惯性和经常性 I am watching TV now. (暂时性)我现在在看电视。 I watch TV every day. (经常性) 我每天都看电视。 (二)现在进行时可表示短暂性动作,而一般现在时表示长久性动作。 Lucy is living in Beijing.(短时间居住)露西暂时住在北京。 Lucy lives in Beijing. (长久性居住) 露西在北京居住或生活。 (三)现在进行时表示的动作可带有感情色彩,而一般现在时所表述的动作通常是事实。 You’re always forgetting the most important things. (责备)你总是爱忘记最重要的事情。 He is always helping others. (赞扬)他一直都在帮助他人。 He often helps others. (事实) 他经常帮助别人。 (四)有些动词不能用进行时,know, understand, love, like, hate, wish, want, think, hope, have, believe, agree, hear, see, notice。这些动词通常用一般现在时表示说话时发生的动作。 表示“拥有”的动词。如have (has) 等。 例句:I have a nice bike now. (我现在有一辆漂亮的自行车。) 不能说成: I am having a nice bike now. 有些表示感觉的感官动词。如:see, find, look (看起来),hear (听见)等。 例句:We see him. (我们看见他。) 不能说成:We are seeing him. 但是,有些表示感觉的动词,如:listen to, look at 等可用现在进行时。 如:They are listening to the teacher. (他们在听老师讲课。) 表示“喜欢”“厌恶”的动词。如:like, love, hate (讨厌)等。 例句:We love our country. (我们热爱祖国。) 不可说: We are loving our country. 表示知识或脑力的动词。如:think, know, forget等。 例句:I think you are right. (我认为你是对的。) 不能说成:I am thinking you are right. 表示状态的be动词“是”。 例句:She is at home. (她在家。) 不能说成:She is being at home. 表示“希望”、“愿望”、“心愿”等的动词。如:want 等词。 例句:I want to see her now. (我现在就想见到她。) 不能说成:I am wanting to see her now. 【典型例题】 一、写出下列动词的现在分词形式 work_______?? sing_______???? play_______???? study________ have _______???? dance ______?? write_______?? take_________ run_________???? sit_________???? shop________?????swim_______ lie________ die begin get 二、用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空。 1. Look! There _____(be) a lot of people over there. What _______they __________ (do) now? 2. —What __________ your mother __________ (do)? —She is a teacher. 3. It __________ (rain) heavily outside now. You must stay at home. 4. Don’t sing. The baby __________(sleep). 5. My brother __________ (not like) playing basketball, but he ______ (like) playing football. 6. —What _________ you usually _________ (do) on Sunday? —I usually _________ (stay) at home and _________ (do) my homework. 7. Listen! The girls _________ (sing) in the next room. 8. My sister _________ (want) to be a teacher. 9. It’s seven o’clock now. The Greens _________ (have) supper. 10. He often _________ (swim) on Sundays. Look! He _________ (swim) at the pool. 三、单项选择 1. I want _________ homework now. A. doing B. to do C. to do my D. do my 2. It’s time _________. A. go to school B. play games C. to go home D. to do my homeworks 3. The boy is _________ to his teacher. A. saying B. speaking C. talking D. telling 4. I’m _________ a book in the room. A. watching B. seeing C. reading D. looking 5. Where _________ he _________ from? A. is, come B. do, come C. does, come D. is, from 6. Do they have a new car? Yes, _________. A. they are B. they have C. they don’t D. they do 7. He often _________ supper at 6:00 in the evening. A. have B. has C. is having D. is eating 8. It’s 6 o’clock in the morning. He _________. A. get up B. gets up C. is geting up D. is getting up 9. What are you doing? I’m _________ TV. A. watch B. watches C. to watch D. watching 10. We _________ any Chinese classes on Friday. A. are having B. aren’t having C. don’t have D. are have 11. Tom _________ an English class now. A. is having B. has C. having D. have 12. Are you playing basketball? No, we _________. A. isn’t B. aren’t C. not D. don’t 四、按要求改写句子 1.? The boy is playing basketball. 否定句:____________________________ 一般疑问句:_________________________ 肯定回答:__________________________ 否定回答:__________________________ 对“The boy”提问:___________________ 2.连词成句 read .a new book. ________________ clean the blackboard.________________ she, the window, open, now.(用现在进行时连词成句.)_____________________ The birds are singing in the tree.(就划线部分提问)________________________ is,who,the window, cleaning?(连词成句)______________________ The children are playing games near the house.(就划线部分提问)_____________________ She is closing the door now.(改成否定句)______________________ You are doing your homework.(用"I"作主语改写句子)______________________ they, the tree, sing, now, under.(用现在进行时连词成句.)_____________________ The Young Pioneers are helping the old woman.(改成一般疑句)_________________ Look!?Lily?is?dancing.(改为一般疑问句)? ??_____________________________________ Kate?is?looking?for?her?watch.(改为否定句)? ??_____________________________________ ?Mrs?White?is?watching?TV.(划线部分提问)? ______________________________________ I?am?doing?homework.(改为否定句)? ______________________________________ ?They?are?waiting?for?you?at?the?library.(就划线部分提问)? ?_____________________________________ They are doing housework .(分别改成一般疑问句和否定句) ___________________________________________________________________________ The students are cleaning the classroom . ( 改一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答) ______________________________________ _____________________________________ I’m playing the football in the playground .(对划线部分进行提问) ______________________________________ Tom is reading books in his study . (对划线部分进行提问) _______________________________________ 单数名词变复数讲义 一、名词的分类 类别 意义 例词 专有名词 表示人、地方、组织机构或事物等的专有名词 Lu Xun, China, Handan, WTO… 普通名词 可数名词 个体名词 表示一类人或物的个体 apple, pencil, doctor, teacher 集体名词 表示一群人或一类物的集合体 people, family, team, class 不可数名词 物质名词 表示无法分为个体的实物 air, sand, water, rain 抽象名词 表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念 peace, friendship, happiness ? 二、名词的数 ??? 名词分为可数和不可数名词。物质名词与抽象名词一般属于不可数名词,它们只有单数形式;个体名词和集体名词一般是可数名词,通常有单数和复数两种形式。 三、变法规则 1、 一般情况下在普通名词之后直接加s。 book ---books boy ---boys pen---pens 2、 以s、x、sh、ch结果的加es。 Class-classes Bus ---buses box –boxes dish –dishes watch –watches 3、 以辅音字母加y结尾的,y变i加es。 family-families party-parties fly- flies 4、 以f/fe结尾的,变f/fe为v加es。 Life-lives wife –wives 妻子拿刀去宰狼,小偷吓得着了慌,躲进架子保己命,半片树叶遮目光。 5、以o结尾的: 有生命的加es, Hero –heroes potato---potatoes tomato—tomatoes 无生命的加s,piano –pianos photo-photos radio-radios 6、 无规则变化的, 变元音字母man –men women –wwomen gooose--geese 单复同形的people ,sheep deer Chinese 无规律的mouse –mice child—children 7、“某国人”的复数形式,中日不变,英法变,其他s加后边。 名词复数形式和数词的练习: 1. There are ___________________________(58个学生)in our class. 2. There are ___________________________(22个孩子) in the room. 3. I can see ____________________________(六杯茶) on the table. 4. There are ____________________________(44位女老师) in her school. 5. We can see __________________________________(18个妇女) over there. 6. ______________________________(多少幅画) are there in you bedroom? 7. I have ________________________________(3本字典). 8. Our school has _________________________________(2个图书馆) . 9. There are ___________________________________(12个月) in a year. 10. There are ______________________________(13辆公共汽车) on the street. 选择填空: 1.The deer has four ______. ? A. foot??? B. feet??? C. feets??? D. foots 2.Her two brothers are both ______. ? A. policeman??? B. policemans??? C. policemen??? D. policemens 3.There are four _____ and two ______ in the group. ? A. Japanese, Germen??? B. Japaneses, Germen??? C. Japanese, Germans 4.Two ______ would come to the village. ? A. woman-doctors??? B. women doctor??? C. women doctors??? D. woman doctors 5.Can you see nine _____ in the picture? ? A. sheep??? B. dog??? C. pig??? D. horse 6.The _____ has two ______. ? A. boys, watches??? B. boy, watch??? C. boy, watches??? D. boys, watch 7.The boy often brushes his _____ before he goes to bed. ? A. tooth??? B. tooths??? C. teeth??? D. teeths 8.The Japanese ____ will not leave China until she finishes her study. ? A. woman??? B. women??? C. man??? D. men 9.There are lots of _____ in the basket on the table. ? A. tomatos??? B. tomato??? C. tomatoes??? D. tomatoss 10. The cat caught two ______ last night. ? A. mouses??? B. mice??? C. mouse??? D. mices ? 数词 英语上数词分为两大类:基数词和序数词。序数词:是指表示顺序的数词。 其主要形式: (1)从第一至第十九 其中,one— first, two— second, three— third, five— fifth,eight—eighth,nine—ninth,twelve— twelfth为特殊形式,其它的序数词都是由其相对应的基数词后面添加“th”构成。例如: six— sixth、nineteen— nineteenth. (2)从第二十至第九十九 整数第几十的形式由其对应的基数词改变结尾字母y为i,再加“eth”构成。 twenty——twentieth thirty——thirtieth 表示第几十几时,用几十的基数词形式加上连字符“-”和个位序数词形式一起表示。 thirty-first 第三十一 fifty-sixth 第五十六 seventy-third 第七十三 ninety-ninth 第九十九 (3)第一百以上的多位序数词 由基数词的形式变结尾部分为序数词形式来表示。 one hundred and twenty-first 第一百二十一 one thousand,three hundred and twentieth 第一千三百二十 (4)序数词的缩写形式 有时,序数词可以用缩写形式来表示。主要缩写形式有。 first——lst second——2nd third——3rd fourth——4th sixth——6th twentieth——20th twenty-third——23rd 其中lst,2nd,3rd为特殊形式,其它的都是阿拉伯数字后加上th。 (5)序数词的句法功能 序数词在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和表语。 The second is what I really need. 第二个是我真正需要的。(作主语) He choose the second. 他挑选了第二个。(作宾语) We are to carry out the first plan. 我们将执行第一个计划。(作定语) She is the second in our class.在我们班她是第二名。(作表语) 注:序数词在使用时,通常前面要加定冠词 the;但是如果序数词前出现不定冠词a或an时,则表示“再——”,“又——”。 We\\'ll go over it a second time. 我们得再念第二遍。 We\\'ve tried it three times.Must we try it a fourth time? 我们已经试过三遍了,还必须试一次(第四次)吗? (6)基数词也可以表示顺序。只需将基数词放在它所修饰的名词之后即可,不需要添加定冠词。 the first lesson——Lesson One the fifth page——Page 5(five) the twenty-first room——Room 21(twenty-one)  序数词(cardinal numbers) 1 first  2 second  3 third  4 fourth  5 fifth  6 sixth  7 seventh  8 eighth  9 ninth  10 tenth 11eleventh  12 twelfth  13 thirteenth  14 fourteenth   15 fifteenth  16 sixteenth  17 seventeenth  18 eighteenth  19 nineteenth   20 twentieth  30 thirtieth  40 fortieth  50 fiftieth  60 sixtieth  70 seventieth   80 eightieth  90 ninetieth   除上面斜体词外,其他序数词通常都在基数词上加th构成:   a.几个特殊拼法的序数词(见上表中斜体词)为:  first(第一),second(第二),third(第三),fifth(第五)  eighth(第八),ninth(第九),twelfth(第十二),twentieth(第二十)等。  b.由one,two,three,five,eight,nine收尾的多位数词,照第一条办法变:  twenty-first(第二十一),thirty-second(第三十二)  sixty-fifth(第六十五),eighty-ninth(第八十九)  a hundred and fifty-second(第一百五十二)  c.其他情况都在基数词上加-th构成:  thirty-sixth(第三十六),ninety-seventh(第九十七)  two hundred and thirty-sixth(第二百三十六) 基数词 英语中数词主要分为基数词和序数词两类。 基数词 : 表示数目的词称为基数词。其形式如下: (1).从1——10 one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten. (2).从 11——19 eleven,twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen,eighteen, nineteen. 这里除 eleven, twelve, thirteen, fifteen, eighteen为特殊形式外,fourteen,sixteen,seventeen,nineteen都是由其个位数形式后添加后缀-teen构成。 (3).从 21——99 整数几十中除twenty,thirty, forty,fifty,eighty为特殊形式外,sixty,seventy,ninety都是其个位数形式后添加后缀-ty构成。表示几十几时,在几十和个位基数词形式之间添加连字符“-” 21 twenty-one 76 seventy-six (4).百位数 个数基数词形式加“hundred”,表示几百,在几十几与百位间加上and. 101 a hundred and one 320 three hundred and twenty 648 six hundred and forty-eight (5).千位数以上 从数字的右端向左端数起,每三位数加一个逗号“,”。从右开始,第一个“,”前的数字后添加 thousand,第二个“,”前面的数字后添加 million,第三个“,”前的数字后添加 billion。然后一节一节分别表示,两个逗号之间最大的数为百位数形式。 2,648 two thousand six hundred and forty-eight 16,250,064 sixteen million two hundred and fifty thousand sixty-four 5,237,166,234 five billion,two hundred and thirty-seven million,one hundred and sixty-six thousand,two hundred and thirty-four (6).基数词在表示确切的数字时,不能使用百、千、百万、十亿的复数形式;但是,当基数词表示不确切数字,如成百、成千上万,三三两两时,基数词则以复数形式出现。There are hundreds of people in the hall. 大厅里有数以百计的人。 Thousands and thousands of people come to visit the Museum of Qin Terra-Cotta Warriors and Horses every day. 每天有成千上万的人来参观秦兵马涌博物馆。 They went to the theatre in twos and threes. 他们三三两两地来到了剧院。 (7).表示人的不确切岁数或年代,用几十的复数形式表示。 He became a professor in his thirties. 他三十多岁时成为了教授。 She died of lung cancer in forties. 她四十来岁时死于肺癌。 It was in the 1960s. 那是在二十世纪六十年代。 (8).基数词的句法功能 基数词在句中可作主语、宾语、定语、表语、同位语。 The two happily opened the box. 两个人高兴地打开了盒子。(作主语) I need three altogether. 我总共需要三个。(作宾语) Four students are playing volleyball outside. 四个学生在外面打排球。(作定语) We are sixteen. 我们是16个人。(作表语) They three tried to finish the task before sunset. 他们三个人尽力想在日落前完成任务。(作同位语)这是一些基数词的写法:0 nought;zero;O 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine10 ten11 eleven12 twelve13 thirteen 14 fourteen15 fifteen16 sixteen17 seventeen18 eighteen19 nineteen20 twenty21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two23 twenty-three30 thirty32 thirty-two40 forty50 fifty60 sixty70 seventy80 eighty 90 ninety 1.it will take them ___________to finish the task A.four years and half B four and half years C four and ahalf years D four years of a half 2.the students were asked to write a _____composition last class A four---hundreds----word B four-----hundred---word C four----hundreds----words D four----hundred ----words 3.the girl is in _______ A her twenty B her twentieth C her twenties D her twentys 4.what time is it ?it's ______(2:55) A fifty ---five past two B two past fifty ---five C five to two D five to three 5.he is _________in our class A the fourth tallest B fourth tallest C the four tallest D four tallest 6.________stars ane in the sky A thousand B thousands of C thousand of D a thousands 7._________is children's day A first June B June the one C June the first D June first 8.there are _______students in our class A forty B fourty C fourth D forteen 9.the first world war broke out _________ A in the 1910 B at the 1910 C in the 1910s D at 1910 10.which class are you in ?we are in __________ A the class one B.class first C class one D.first class 第一课 讲 义 名词的单复数,可数与不可数名词,名词的所有格,冠词 知识点1. 名词的单复数 名词:表示人或事物的名称或抽象概念的词。 可数名词与不可数名词. 单数可数名词 前面可加 来修饰: 可数名词:可以计数的名词 一个苹果 名词 复数可数名词 不可数名词:不可计数的名词 没有复数形式,前面不能用不定冠词a, an, 也不能直接加数词. 但可以跟某些量词短语搭配,表示数量, 如: 两杯茶 . A.可数名词 1. 单数可数名词,表示“一”的概念,指单个的可数物体。要用名词的单数形式, 表示名词的单数,要在名词前加冠词a或an。(an多用于以a ,e, i, o,开头的单词) eg:一本书 a book 一个苹果 an apple 一个鸡蛋 an egg 2.复数名词:指两个或以上的可数物体。名词复数的规则变化。 ① 在一般情况下,词尾后加-s。 books,cups,beds,boys,horses ②. 以s,x,sh,ch结尾的词,词尾加-es, buses,boxes,dishes,watches ③ 以f或fe结尾的词,先将f或fe变成v,再加-es, ,knife(刀)----knives ④ 以辅音字母加o结尾的词,有生命的加es。 tomatoes,potatoes 如果是o结尾的没有生命的名词只加s: zoos radios photos pianos ⑤ 以辅音字母加y结尾的词,先将y改为i再加-es。 Family--Families,baby--babies 3 名词复数的不规则变化。man— men ,tooth— teeth ,child— children ,foot---- feet 4 有些名词只有复数形式 trousers,glasses,socks, shorts, shoes 通常是以复数的形式出现。 *另外也可以说,一双袜子 a pair of socks ,一条裤子 a pair of trousers 等 5. 句子单数变复数,注意以下5要素: ⑴ 主格人称代词要变成相应的复数主格人称代词,即I→we,you→you,she,he,it→ they。 如:She is a girl. →They are girls ⑵ am,is要变为are。如:I’m a student. →We are students. ⑶ 不定冠词a,an要去掉。如:He is a boy. →They are boys. ⑷ 普通单数名词要变为复数形式。 如:It is an apple. →They are apples. ⑸ 指示代词this,that要变为these,those。如:This is a box. →These are boxes B.不可数名词 1. 没有复数形式,前面不能用不定冠词a, an,也不能直接加数词.但可以跟某些量词短语搭配,表示数量, 如: 一杯水 a cup of water (不能说a water).一杯茶 a cup of tea 2. 不可数名词跟量词搭配时,变复数只变量词:两杯水 two cups of water 很多杯茶 many cups of tea 注:可数名词也可以和量词搭配,of后的可数名词要用复数形式: 一双鞋 a pair of shoes 当量词的数量超过一时,也变复数: 8双鞋子 eight pairs of shoes 冠词 冠词是放在名词前的一个虚词,本身无独立意义。冠词分为不定冠词(a,an)和定冠词(the)。 1. 巧学a和an: a和an均为不定冠词,用于单数可数名词前,表示数量为“一(个、块、只)……” (1) a用于辅音音标(而不是辅音字母)开头的单数可数名词前,an用于元音音标(而不是元音字母)开头的单数可数名词前。 一支笔 a pen ; 一个橘子 an orange ; 一个英语老师 an English teacher 一个小时 an hour ; (2)如单数可数名词前有this、that、my等代词修饰时,则不再使用a或an。   1. ( )This is ___ bag. A.my  B.my a  C.a my 2. ( )This isn’t_Japanese map.That is_English map. A.a;a B.an;an C.a;an 在某些固定词组中,需要不定冠词,如:a lot of 许多 ,a bit 一点 , take a walk 散步 ,have a rest 休息 等。 2.定冠词the的用法:与指示代词this,that相同,有“那(这)个”的意思,但较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。 (1) 特指双方都明白的人或物 看黑板 Look at the blackboard (2)上文提到过的人或事,第一次出现用a/an,第二次出现用the: 如:桌子上有一支钢笔,钢笔是红色的。 There is a pen on the desk. The pen is red (3) 用在序数词的前面。如:五月是一年的第五个月 May is the fifth month of the year 。 (4) 用在一些习惯用语中。如:在早晨/下午/晚上 In the morning/afternoon/evening (5)用在乐器之前。如: 弹钢琴 Playing the piano 3. 不用冠词的场合 (1)名词前有this,that,my,his ,some,no,each,every等作修饰词时。 如:他的桌子很有用 His desk is very useful 。 (2)表示星期、月份、季节、节日的名词前。如:我在周日看电视。 I watch TV on Sunday (3)在三餐名词前。如:我爸爸晚饭后读报纸。 My father reads the newspaper after supper (4)在球类运动前。如:你喜欢打篮球吗? Do you like playing basketball? (5)惯用语。如:在晚上 at night ,在床上 in bed ,在学校 at school , 去上学 go to school 去睡觉 go to bed 等。 知识点3. 名词的所有格 名词所有格形式:表示有生命的名词与后面名词的所有关系。分为: (1)名词+’s所有格见下表: 名词+’s所有格 单数名词后直接加 ’s 吉姆的苹果 Jim’s apple 汤姆的妈妈 Tom’s mother 以s结尾的复数名词,只加 ’ 教师节 Teachers’ Day 男孩们的书 boys’ books 不以s结尾的不规则的名词复数,加 ’s 儿童节 Children’s Day 男式鞋 men’s shoes 表示两者共同拥有时,只在最后一个名词后加’s 表示两者各自拥有时,要在每个名词后加’s 露茜和莉莉的妈妈(一个妈妈) Lucy and Lily’s mother 露茜和莉莉的房间(各自的房间,不是同一个) Lucy’s and Lily’s rooms ⑵of所有格:动物和无生命的名词所有格一般使用介词of短语来表示。如: 她的猫的名字 the name of her cat 一张我们学校的照片 a photo of our school 有时有生命的东西也可用of所有格,可与名词+’s所有格替换。如: the name of the boy=the boy’s name这个男孩的名字 1 一.英语代词 1、代词的分类:英语中代词分为:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、关系代词、疑问代词、连接代词和不定代词等等。 2、人称代词:人称代词代替人和事物的名称,分为主格和宾格两种形式。 第一人称单数 第二人称单数 第三人称单数 第一人称复数 第二人称复数 第三人称复数 阳性 阴性 中性 主格 I (我) you (你) he (他) she(她) it(它) we(我们) you(你们) they (他们,她们,它们) 宾 格 me (我) you (你) him (他) her(她) it(她) us(我们) you(你们) them (他们,她们,它们) 1、主格用来作句子的主语、表语。如: I often go shopping on Sundays.(星期天我常去购物) / Are they from Brazil?(他们是巴西人吗?) / Where have they gone?(他们上哪儿去了?) / That’s it.(就那么回事) / It’s he!(是他!) 2、宾格用来作及物动词或者介词的宾语。如:Who teaches you English this year?(今年谁教你们的英语?) / Help me!(救救我!) / We often write letters to her.(我们常给他写信) 3、人称代词作表语或者放在比较状语从句连词than或as之后时,可以用主格形式,也可以用宾格形式,口语中大多用宾格。如:--Who is it?(是谁?) –It’s I/me.(是我。) 4、 三个不同人称同时出现,或者主语中包含“我”时,按照“you→he→I”的顺序表达。如: Both he and I are working at that computer company.(我和他都在那家电脑公司上班) –Who will go there?(谁要去那儿?) –You and me.(你和我) 5、 人称代词it除了可以指人指物之外,还可以表示“时间、天气、温度、距离、情况”等含义,此外还可以作“非人称代词”使用,替代作主语或者宾语的不定式、动名词或者名词性从句。如:--What’s the weather like today?(今天天气怎样?)—It’s fine.(天气晴好) / --What’s the time?(几点啦?) –It’s 12:00.(12点) / It’s a long way to go.(那可要走好长的路) / It took him three days to clean his house.(打扫屋子花了他三天的时间) / It is very clear that the public want to know when these men can go into space.(很显然,公众想知道这些人什么时候能进入太空) / We found it very difficult to learn a foreign language well.(我们发觉要学好一门外语是非常困难的) 3、物主代词:说明事物所属关系的代词,分为形容词性和名词性两种。 第一人称单数 第二人称单数 第三人称单数 第一人称复 数 第二人称复数 第三人称复数 阳性 阴性 中性 形容词性 my (我的) your(你的) his (他的) her(她的) its(它的) our(我们的) your(你们的) their (他们的,她们的,它们的) 名词性 mine (我的) Yours (你的) his (他的) hers(她的) its(她的) ours(我们的) yours(你们的) theirs(他们的,她们的,它们的) 1、形容词性物主代词只能作句子中名词的修饰语,后面要跟名词。如: Is that your umbrella?(那是你的伞吗?) / I often go to see my aunt on Sundays.(我经常在星期天去看望阿姨) / They are their books.(是他们的书) 2、名词性物主代词相当于名词,既代替事物又表明所属关系,在句子中往往独立地作主语、宾语或者表语,后面千万不可以跟名词。如: This is your cup,but where is mine?(这是你的杯子,可我的在哪儿?) / Your classroom is very big, but ours is rather small.(你们的教室很大,我们的相当小) 3、“of + 名词性物主代词”称为双重所有格,作定语时放在名词的后面。如: A friend of mine came to see me yesterday.(我的一个朋友昨天来看我了) (指若干朋友中有一个来看我。) [试比较] My friend came to see me yesterday.(我的朋友昨天来看我了)(指我的那个特定的朋友来看我。) 4、反身代词:表示谓语的动作与主语有关或者宾语补足语的动作与宾语有关。 第一人称单数 第二人称单数 第三人称单数 第一人称复数 第二人称复数 第三人称复数 阳性 阴性 中性 myself(我自己) yourself(你自己) himself (他自己) herself(她自己) itself(它自己) ourselves(我们自己) yourselves(你们自己) themselves (他们/她们/它们自己) 1、反身代词在句子中作宾语表示反射(指一个动作回到该动作执行者本身)。如: Don’t play with the knife, you might hurt yourself.(不要玩刀子,那会割伤你的) 2、在句子中作同位语表示强调(即用来强调名词或代词的语气)。如: The story itself is good. Only he didn’t tell it well.(故事本身是好的,只是他没有讲好) 6、 指示代词: 指示说明近处或者远处、上文或者下文、以前或者现在的人或事物。 单数 复数 含义 this(这个) these(这些) 指较近的人和物 that(那个) those(那些) 指较远的人和物 such (这样的人/物) 指上文提过的人和物 same (同样的人/物) 指和上文提过的相同的人和物 it (这人/这物) 指不太清楚是谁或者是什么时 指示代词既可以单独使用做句子的主语、宾语或表语,也可以作定语修饰名词。如: What’s this?(这是什么?) / That model plane is made of plastic.(那只模型飞机是塑料做的)(被动句) / Remember never to do such things.(记得永远不要做这样的事情) / Do the same as the teacher tells you. (按老师说的做)/ ---Who is it?(是谁?) ---It’s me!(是我!) 6、关系代词:用来引导定语从句的代词叫关系代词,参见后面的定语从句。 1、关系代词who 、which、 that 、whom 等,将定语从句和主句连接起来。英语中的关系代词一方面在从句中担任一定的成分,另一方面又起连接作用。 如:The student who is drawing a picture is in Grade One.(正在画画的学生是一年级的) 2、关系代词who / whom指人,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。如: Do you know the man who is wearing a red hat? (你认识那个戴着红帽子的男人吗?) 3、关系代词which 指物,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。如:Have you found the book which you lost several days ago?(你找到几天前丢失的那本书了吗?) 4、关系代词that既可指人也可指物,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。如:Can you see the man/dog that is running along the river bank ?(你看得见顺着河跑的男人/狗了吗?) 7、连接代词:用来引导宾语从句、主语从句或表语从句的连接词称连接代词。 英语中连接代词主要有:what(什么),who(谁),whom(谁),which(哪个),whose(谁的)。详见相应从句。 8、不定代词:代替或修饰不特指的人或事物的代词叫不定代词。 单数 含义 some any no none / / each (every) one either, neither so the other, another 复合不 定代词 不可数 含义 much little, a little all / / / / / 复数 含义 many few, a few ones both others,the others ※ 注:复合不定代词有12个:something(某事), someone(某人), somebody(某人), anything (任何事), anyone(任何人), anybody(任何人), nothing(没事),nobody(没有人), no one(没有人), everything(一切), everyone(每个人), everybody(每个人). 二.be 的用法口诀   我用am,你用are,is连着他,她,它;   单数名词用is,复数名词全用are。   变疑问,往前提,句末问号莫丢弃。   变否定,更容易,be后not莫忘记。   疑问否定任你变,句首大写莫迟疑。 三.名词所有格 英语名词所有格有两种:1.名词的所有格表示名词的所有关系,有两种形式。 由名词后加's或' 构成,多用来表示有生命的人或动物。 2.由of加名词构成,多用来表示无生命的人或动物。 1.'s所有格的用法:? a)主要用于有生命的名词,例如:lily's, my brother's books, Mary's boyfriend. 若一样东西为两人共有,后一个人名加's;如果不是两人共有,而是各有各的,则两个名词都加's,且其后名词应为复数。例如:Lily and Lucy's mother, Lily’s and Lucy’s pens? b)用于地理、国家机关、城市等名词,例如:Beijing's future, the government's decision.? c)用于时间、价值、距离、重量等名词,例如:today's newspaper, ten dollars' worth, five miles' distance, twenty pounds' weight. d)表示理发店、商店等名词或一些习惯用法,例如:at the butcher's, 2) of所有格的用法:主要用于表示无生命的名词,例如:the door of the house, a ma p of China, the photo of your family.? 3)双重属格的用法:主要用来表示人的所有关系,例如:a friend of my brother's, some children of Mr. Brown's. 四. 区分一般疑问句和特殊疑问句的最简单的方法是:一般疑问句都能够直接用yes或no回答。而特殊疑问句不能直接用yes或no回答。 一般疑问句由do\does\did\done(助动词)或am\is\are\was\were(系动词)或者 can、may、must、should、would(情态动词)等引导。 如:1 Is this your pen? Yes it is./No it isn't 2. —Is this your English book? 这是你的英语书吗? —Yes,it is. 是的,它是。 —No,it isn`t. 不,它不是。 3. —Can you spell your name? 你会拼写你的名字吗? —Yes,I can. 是的,我会。 —No,I can`t.不,我不会。 特殊疑问句由what(询问事物), how much(询问价格), what time (询问时间,尤其是点钟), what kind of(询问种类), why(询问原因),who(询问人), where(询问地点)等特殊疑问词引导。 如:1 —What is this? 这是什么? —It's a key. 这是一把钥匙。 2 —How much is it? 这个多少钱? —It's twenty dollars. 二十美元。 3 —What kind of movies do you like? 你喜欢哪一类型的电影? —I like action movies. 我喜欢动作片。 4 What time is it? 现在几点钟? 5 Who is your teacher? 谁是你的老师? 6 — What time is it, please? 请问几点了? — It's 7:30. 七点半了。 7 — Where are they? 他们在哪儿? —They're in the playground. 他们在操场上。 8 —What's your favorite subject? 你最喜爱的科目是什么? —English. 英语 五.第三人称单数形式 1、大多数实义动词 (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=7643050&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link" \t "_blank?)在词尾加“s”在清辅音 (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=7546894&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link" \t "_blank?)后发音为/ s / ;在浊辅音 (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=7721958&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link" \t "_blank?)及元音因素后发音为 / z /。 如speak→speaks /s/ ; come→comes /z/ ; play→plays /z/ 。 2、以辅音字母加“y”结尾的动词,要先将“y”变为“i”然后再加“es”读/z/。 如study→studies /z/ ; fly (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=1158688&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link" \t "_blank?)→flies /z/ 3、以“s、x、ch、sh”结尾的动词在词尾加“es”发音为/ iz / 。 如teach (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=20354484&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link" \t "_blank?)→teaches /iz/ ; watch (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=53831320&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link" \t "_blank?)→watches /iz/ 4、以“o”结尾的动词,在词尾加“es”。 常出现的两个以“o”结尾的动词go和do后加“es”读/z/ 。 如go→goes /z/ ; do→does (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=67616531&ss_c=ssc.citiao.link" \t "_blank?) /z/ 5、记住最为特别的be的三单is ,have的三单是has。 六.常见的特殊疑问词    where (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=525839" \t "_blank?):哪里(状语 (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=65045378" \t "_blank?))   wh (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=485207" \t "_blank?)at :什么   when:问时间 (回答用At/ On... (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=27535" \t "_blank?)等)   which (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=7690973" \t "_blank?):哪一个,哪个   who :谁 ( 回答用He is... She is... They are...等)   whom: 谁(宾格 (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=595551?))   whose:谁的 (回答用It is.. These/Those are等)   why (?http:?/??/?baike.sogou.com?/?lemma?/?ShowInnerLink.htm?lemmaId=64819324" \t "_blank?): 为什么 (回答

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